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President David O. McKay 

Beloved is the word that eomes to mind. And 
this graeious kindly, inspired man fits the word 
in every way. 

As one sees his Huntsville home and hears of 
lessons learned in ehildhood, there is new under- 
standing of the sentenee that he uttered, which 
has been cited worldwide: "No other success can 
compensate for failure in the home." 

If only in each home all young people in this 
world could be taught the lessons he has learned! 

Wc witness to the world that this beloved, 
re\ered man is a prophet of God in the literal, 
biblical sense, even as all those to whom God has 
given this holy calling. 

There are millions worldwide, both in the 
Church and out, who send their love and blessing 
for his peace and health and happiness and in- 
spired leadership on the ninety-sixth anniversary 
of his birth. God bless this majestic, compassion- 
ate man and be with him in all the days and years 
. . ^ that are to b^ 




The 



RICKS COLLEGE 




* 




It is a paradox that men will gladly devote time every day for many years to learn a science or art; yet will expect 
to win a knowledge of the gospel which comprehends all sciences and arts, through perfunctory glances at books or 
occasional listening to sermons. The gospel should be studied more intensively than any school or college subject. 
They who pass opinion on the gospel without having given it intimate and careful study are not lovers of the truth, 
and their opinions are worthless.— ELDER JOHN A. WIDTSOE 





•# 






DPPDRTUNITIE5 IN 

Spiritual Growtli • Leadersliip • 

Activities • Academic Achievement 

New Friendships • Recreation 





FOR INFORMATION WRITE: 

DIRECTOR OF ADMISSIONS 

RICKS COLLEGE 

REXBURG, IDAHO 83440 



''YOUR CHURCH COUEGf IN IDAHO 



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THE STORY OF DAVID 
AND GOLIATH 

Still David did not flinch. 
Instead, he calmly took one of 
the stones from his bag, put it in 
his sling, and threw it with all 
his strength at the advancing 
giant. The watching thousands 
held their breath. Actual size of print. 



Just one of over 400 stories presented 
with simplicity, beauty and clarity by 
Arthur S. Maxwell, dean of Bible story- 
tellers. Every page opens to a full-color 
illustration. ■ Stories are written in 
modern language, short enough to hold 
the attention of readers of all ages. 

. the greatest influence 

for good in the world today 

r. . becomes easy to read and understand. 

Here are found the important lessons 

in life for your child. 




Stories and Pictures 
That Make the Bible Live 








Accepted in 
thousands of 
homes of all 
faiths. 



Book size, 7 x 9^A inches. 




PARENTS value The Bible Story as a powerful 
assistant in the job of character building. Each of the 
400 Bible stories brings the color and excitement . . . 
and all the adventure ... in the lives of famous men 
and women of Scripture. 

NO\V the whole Bible in living color as appealing 
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TWO - Mighty Men of Old 
THREE - Trials and Triumphs 
FOUR — Heroes and Heroines 
FIVE - Great Men of God 
SIX — Struggles and Victories 
SEVEN- WonderfulJesus 
EIGHT— Prince of Princes 
NINE -King of Kings 
TEN - The Final Victory 




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PARENTS, TEACHERS. JUDGES, 
CHURCH AND YOUTH LEADERS, 
all agree: Good books build good char- 
acter and help young people to meet 
successfully the realities of life. Just 
as good food builds strong bodies, so 
good books build healthy minds. 
Color photos by Marvin Polin 



READERS PRAISE THE BIBLE STORIES 
Complete letters on file 

Sunday School Superintendent— "I have 
been amazed at the interest the children 
have shown in The Bible Story. . . . The 

books are a wonderful help in teaching." 

Principal, Catholic School— "It is my opin- 
ion that they should be in every home and 
every classroom. These books can serve as 



an introduction to the Bible which the 
child of today will be able to understand 
as the adult of tomorrow." 

Congregational Pastor — "The volumes are 
just what is needed to start the yoxingsters 
toward an imderstanding and knowledge 
of the Bible." 

Presbyterian Church Pastor— "I heartily 
commend this set to all parents as interest- 
ing and wholesome reading, and to Chris- 
tian mothers, fathers, and older relatives." 



On the Cover: 

Portraits of President David 0. McKay at 
five different periods of his life are repro- 
duced on this month's cover to commemo- 
rate his ninety-sixth birthday September 8. 
These are: 1) young David 0. McKay at about 
age five; 2) in his early twenties as a young 
university graduate; 3) in his middle thirties 
as a young member of the Council of the 
Twelve; 4) in his early 80's, during the first 
years as President of the Church; 5) today, in 
his eighteenth year as Prophet, Seer, and 
Revelator of The Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints. The painting, done from 
photographs, was conceived by Improvement 
Era art director Ralph Reynolds and executed 
by Dale Kilbourn, a prominent Salt Lake City 
artist. 

This month is the first time the Era has 
used a gatefold or foldout cover. 



President McKay playing horseshoes in London, 1924. 





The Voice of the Church • September 1969 • Volume 72, Number 9 

Special Features 

2 The Editor's Page: Our Places of Worship, President David 0. McKay 

4 Paintings of Captain Cook and Cortez 

6 The Great White God Was a Reality, Elder Mark E. Petersen 

10 It All Began, Dennis Smith 

11 The Renewal of the Earth to Paradisiacal Glory, Dr. Hyrum L. Andrus 

14 In Huntsville, Mabel Jones Gabbott 

16 Man Is An Agent Unto Himself, President Alvin R. Dyer 

33 Some Uncommon Aspects of the Mormon Migration, Dr. T. Edgar Lyon 

79 One Vote Can Change History, Henry C. Nicholas 

85 A New Look at the Pearl of Great Price: Part 8, Facsimile No. 1, by the 
Figures, Dr. Hugh Nibley 

Regular Features 

26 The LDS Scene 

56 Presiding Bishop's Page: The Presiding Bishop Talks to Youth About 
the Family, Bishop John H. Vandenberg 

60 Today's Family: What Should Schools Teach Our Children? Mabel 
Jones Gabbott 

68 Lest We Forget: "I Was Asleep at My Post," Albert L. Zobell, Jr. 

70 Teaching: The How of Brotherhood, Dr. P. Wendel Johnson 

76 The Church Moves On 

80 Buffs and Rebuffs 

82 These Times: New Patterns in World Affairs, Dr. G. Homer Durham 

96 End of an Era 

40, 63, 69, 77 The Spoken Word, Richard L Evans 

Era of Youth 

41 55 Marion D. Hanks and Elaine Cannon, Editors 

Fiction, Poetry 

28 A Patronym for Hu Chan, Robert J. Morris 
Poetry 13, 22, 30, 76, 78, 80 



David 0. McKay and Richard L. Evans, Editors; Doyle L. Green. Managing Editor; Albert L. Zobell, Jr., Research Editor; Mabel Jon«s Gabbott, Jay M Todd 
Eleanor Knowles. William T. Sykes. Editorial Associates; Marion D. Hanks, Era of Youth Editor; Elaine Cannon, Era of Youth Associate Editor Ralph 
Reynolds, Art Director; Norman F. Price, Staff Artist. 

G. Carlos Smith, Jr., General Manager; Florence S. Jacobsen, Associate General Manager; Verl F. Scott, Business Manager; A. Glen Snarr, Circulation Manager; 
Thayer Evans, S. Glenn Smith. Advertising Representatives. G. Homer Durham, Franklin S. Harris, Jr., Hugh Nibley, Sidney B. Sperry, Albert L Payne, 
Contributing Editors. 

O General Superintendent, Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1969, and published by the 
Mutual Improvement Associations of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. All rights reserved- Subscription price, $3.00 a year, in advance; 
multiple subscriptions, 2 years, $5.75; 3 years, $8.25; each succeeding year. $2.50 a year added to the three-year price; 35^ single copy except for special 

issues. 

Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah, as second class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103 

act of October 1917, authorized July 2, 1918. 

The Improvement Era is not responsible for unsolicited manuscripts but welcomes contributions. Manuscripts are paid for ort acceptance and must be 

accompanied by sufficient postage for delivery and return. 

Thirty days' notice is required for change of address. When ordering a change, please include address label from a recent issue of the magazine. Address 

changes cannot be made unless the old address as well as the new one is included. 

Official organ of the Priesthood Quorums, Mutual Improvement Associations, Home Teaching Committee, 
Music Committee. Church School System, and other agencies of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

The Improvement Era, 79 South State, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 



The Editor's Fkge 




Our Places ot Wo 



Wl^ Presidenit David O. McKay 



• Why does The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints build chapels? 

There are two purposes for which each chapel is 
constructed: first, that it might be the place where 
all may be trained in the ways of God, and second, 
that in it all might glorify our Father in heaven, who 
asks for nothing more of his children than that they 
might be men and women of such noble character 
as to come back into his presence. 

The Lord has said in modern revelation: ". . . this 
is my work and my glory— to bring to pass the immor- 
tality and eternal life of man." (Moses 1:39.) The more 
we understand of that remarkable revelation, the more 
profound the gospel becomes and the more philo- 
sophical it is for granting the existence of God, the 
Creator of all things. Of what use would this glorious 
earth and all the uncounted wonders of the heavens 
be, if it weren't for men— the children of God? What 
would rocks and seas and minerals be, to a creation, 
except as a means to glorify and make possible the 
advancement of his children? Thus, his work and his 
glory is to bring about the immortality and eternal 
life of his children. 

That can be done only if we conform to God's laws. 
That is why he has given us the gospel, and why 
each individual must work out his own salvation. 

Individuals come armed with three potentialities: 
first, by birth, inheritance— a possession that too many 



of us fail to appreciate; second, an environment; and 
third, what we make of ourselves. It is for this 
third potentiality that the Lord holds the individual 
responsible. 

The buildings of the Church are an enviroimient— 
a holy environment— that contributes mightily to the 
character development of those who come there. 
Beautiful as our chapels are, they are nothing unless 
they are used. They are built in order that men, 
women, and children may come to them to receive 
training and development that will contribute to pure 
and righteous living in developing character and in- 
creasing faith in God, in whose honor the chapels 
are constructed. 

It has been my privilege, as a servant of the Lord, 
to dedicate many chapels. As I have stood at the 
pulpit to speak and counsel before offering the dedi- 
catory prayer, I have often voiced these thoughts: 

A completed chapel is a credit to the members, to 
their skill, to their judgment; it is a credit to the 
Church. It also stands as a monument to brotherhood 
and good will. I am not overstating when I say that 
those who have participated in building chapels have 
never thought more of one another than they have 
during the effort they have put forth in erecting a 
chapel. They have not done it for themselves; they 
have had the worship of God in mind, and God will 
reward them for their efforts. 



Improvement Era 




Each of our chapels is built for the worship of God. 
This is where real communion will take place if we 
come in the right spirit. 

I think of the apostle Peter, that practical fisherman. 
He was not a theologian when he was called by the 
Savior, but in less than three years, in spiritual en- 
vironment, he became one of the great spiritual leaders 
of all time. It was he who wrote in one of his epistles, 
". . . that by these ye might be partakers of the divine 
nature." (2 Pet. 1:4.) Peter had reached a spiritual 
state in which he sensed that he was a partaker of the 
divine power that comes from God through the Holy 
Spirit. 

In our meetings in*our chapels we also can partake 
of the divine power if we come to worship God in 
the proper spirit. Thus our meetings in our chapels 
should be quiet and orderly. It is glorious to partake 
of the sacrament in silence, so that each may commune 
with himself as he partakes of the emblems of our 
Lord's sacrifice. 

Think of it— if we have a million, two million, or ten 
million members each Sabbath day, parents and 
children, sitting together as families, and all saying, 
"I am willing to take upon me the name of Christ 
and always have his spirit to direct me." There is 
nothing higher. That is why chapels are built. 

In the classrooms of our buildings, we are taught 
the principles of the gospel, remembering that a man 



is saved no faster than he gains the knowledge of 
God's plan. 

Our classrooms are used for this purpose not only 
on Sunday for priesthood and Sunday School meetings 
but also during the week for meetings of the Primary 
and the Mutual Improvement Associations. 

In our Relief Society rooms, mature women, usually 
mothers, learn how to render service to others, to be 
unselfish with their time and talents in matters per- 
taining to the Church as they are in the responsibili- 
ties of their own homes. 

In our cultural halls, our people gather together 
for sociability in an environment that is uplifting. Men 
are social beings; they do not live by themselves 
alone, and they must remember that all that they 
send into the hearts of others comes back into their 
own. 

Many chapels have baptismal fonts. Parents, let 
your child know what it means to have a repentant 
spirit, that he may go down in the waters of baptism 
and make a covenant to keep God's commandments 
and then to come forth in the newness of life, that 
he might so live that he may be a partaker of the 
divine power through the Holy Ghost. 

Thus we see that our chapels, which are built and 
dedicated to the work of the Lord, are places of 
worship, structures in which we may truly glorify 
our Father in heaven. O 



September 1969 





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Hawaiians Welcome Captain James Cook as a God 



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Paintings by Sam McKim 



Montezuma Honors Hernando Cortez as a Returning God 




The Great 




Was 
a Realitv 



By Elder Mark E. Petersen 

of the Council of the Twelve 



• The Great White God of ancient America still lives! 

In the discoveries and writings of archaeologists 
and historians, he now stands out as an unassailable 
reality. The mystery that so long veiled the puzzling 
traditions of the natives is swept aside by modem 
research and newlv found but centuries old documents 
that open a widely expanded view of this divinity and 
his labors in the western hemisphere. 

There was such a God! 

He did come to America, long before the time of 
Columbus. 

He taught the ancients his true religion, raised 
some of their dead, healed many of their sick, taught 
new and more productive methods of agriculture, and 
established a government of equality and peace. 

He came suddenly and left suddenly in a super- 
natural manner. 

The ancients regarded him as the Creator, come to 
earth in bodily form. 

Who can doubt evidence that now mounts so high? 

That he was a Christian divinity none can success- 
fully deny. 

That his teachings were akin to the Bible is now 
readily admitted by many. 



And that he promised to return in a second coming 
is an acknowledged, scriptural fact, well attested by 
subsequent historical accounts. 

The tradition of a White God in ancient America 
was preserved through generations of Indians from 
Chile to Alaska, and has been significantly persistent 
likewise among the Polynesians from Hawaii to New 
Zealand. 

In their main details all such traditions agree. They 
differ in name and in minor details from island to 
island and from countiy to country, but the overall 
outline remains the same— there was a Great White 
God. He came among their forefathers, ministered 
for a while, and then left again. Some say he ascended 
to heaven. 

Of such veracity is the information now available 
concerning him that Paul Herrmann was induced to 
say in his book The Conquest of Man: 

"Carefully considered this leaves no conclusion 
open than that the Light God Quetzalcoatl was a real 
person, that he was neither an invention of Spanish 
propaganda nor a legendary figment of Indian imagi- 
nation." (P. 72.), 

This being was known as Quetzalcoatl in parts of 



Improvement Era 



Mexico, primarily in the Cholula area. He was Votan 
in Chiapas and Wixepechocha in Oaxaca, Gucumatz 
in Guatemala, Viracocha and Hyustus in Peru, Sume in 
Brazil, and Bochica in Colombia. 

To the Peruvians he also was known as Con-tici or 
Illa-Tici, Tici meaning both Creator and the Light. 
To the Mayans he was principally known as Kukulcan. 

In the Polynesian Islands he was Lono, Kana, Kane, 
or Kon, and sometimes Kanaloa— the Great Light or 
Great Brightness. He also was known as Kane-Akea, 
the Great Progenitor, or Tanga-roa, the god of ocean 
and sun. 

What did he look like, this Great White God? 

He was described as a tall, white man, bearded, 
and with blue eyes. He wore loose, flowing robes. 
He came from heaven, and went back to heaven. 

And what did he do when he came? He healed 
the sick, gave sight to the blind, cured the lame, and 
raised some of the dead. He taught a better life, 
telling the people to do unto others as they would be 
done by, to love their neighbors as themselves, and 
to always show kindness and charity. 

He seemed to be a person of great authority and 
unmeasured kindness. He had power to make hills 
into plains and plains into high mountains. He could 
bring fountains of water from the solid rock. 

In addition to giving them rules on how to live 
peacefully together, he urged them to greater learn- 
ing, and also taught them improved methods of agri- 
culture. 

One of the remarkable things about his coming 
was that he appeared after a period of darkness in 
all the land, during which the people had prayed for 
a return of the sun. While the darkness yet prevailed, 
"they suffered great hardship and made great prayers 
and vows to those they held to be their gods imploring 
of them the hght that had failed." As the light re- 
turned, then came this "white man of large stature 
whose air and person aroused great respect and 
veneration. . . . And when they saw his power, they 
called him the Maker of all things, their Beginner, 
Father of the sun." (Pedro de Cieza de Leon, The 
Incas. ) 

This personage, as he taught his religion, also urged 
the people to build great temples for worship, and 
his followers became very devout. ( Pierre Honore, 
In Quest of the White God, p. 16. ) As he left them, 
he promised his second coming, which caused the 
natives to look for his return even as the Jews look 
for their promised Messiah. 



This faith led to disaster, however, when the 
Spaniards came to America and when Captain Cook 
sailed to the Hawaiian Islands. But these tragedies 
served only to reinforce the evidence of his reality. 

When the Spanish Conquistadores reached South 
America, one of Pizzaro's lieutenants strode ashore 
wearing his helmet and breastplate and carrying a 
shining musket. Hp made an impressive appearance. 

Natives on the shore watched him in amazement. 
He was a white man! As Pedro de Candia strode 
toward them, they knelt before him and began to say 
"Viracocha, Viracocha." It puzzled the gallant Pedro. 
The natives drew nearer, surrounding him. Somewhat 
fearful himself, he fired his gun into the air, expecting 
to frighten the natives away. But they did not move. 
Instead they whispered, 'Ilia Tiki, Ilia Tiki," meaning, 
"the god of lightning." 

The Indians thought he was their returning white 
god Viracocha, and that with his gun he controlled 
both thunder and lightning. 

Hernando Cortez was likewise believed to be the 
returning White God as he came to Mexico in 1520. 
When the coastal natives saw that he was white, a 
leader among his men, and that he came in a large 
ship with white sails, they ran hurriedly to their ruler 
Montezuma and announced that the Great White God 
had arrived. 

This had a striking effect upon Montezuma. He 
remembered that when he was crowned as emperor, 
the priests of the Aztec cult reminded him: "This is 
not your throne; it is only lent you and will one day 
be returned to the One to whom it is due." (Pierre 
Honore, op. cit., p. 66.) 

Montezuma immediately made plans to greet Cortez 
with all the respect he owed to the White God whom 
his Aztec religion had taught him to expect. Precious 
gifts were brought to Cortez; the riches of the realm 
were opened to him. He was honored as a deity 
indeed. But his treachery soon changed that, and 
warfare resulted. Montezuma lost his throne and his 
life. But the tradition remained. 

When Captain James Cook sailed into the peaceful 
waters of the Hawaaan Islands, he too was mistaken 
for the White God. The natives there, like their rela- 
tives in America, had long expected the second coming 
of their Great White God. 

Seeing Captain Cook, a white man of high com- 
mand, sailing in a large ship with great white sails 
such as the natives had never before seen, the naive 
Hawaiians received and worshiped him as their long- 



September 1969 



looked-for golden-haired god Lono. 

Remarkably, Captain Cook had landed during the 
Makahiki Festival, the celebration that kept alive the 
traditions of the White God Lono. King Kalaniopuu 
welcomed him and his party, and the native priests 
led him with high cqremony to the great stone trun- 
cated pyramid that was Lono's temple. In amazement, 
the redoubtable British explorer accepted their 
obeisance, quite willing to receive any honors they 
were willing to bestow upon him. 

But his men were anything but angelic, and through 
their depredations they brought down upon the entire 
Cook party the wrath of the natives. In the battle 
that ensued. Cook lost his life. 

But once again— the tradition persisted. 

Not only have the oft-told stories of the White God 
continued through the ages, but his teachings are also 
still dear to the hearts of the natives. 

For years, because men went to war and often were 
killed, women were the keepers of the traditions and 
genealogies. They told these stories to their children 
and their children's children. 

One of the remarkable survivals is that recounted 
in Stephen's Incidents of Travel in Central America. 
The author quotes what Fuentes, chronicler of the 
ancient kingdom of Guatemala and of the Toltecan 
Indians, said of the origin of these people. 

They were Israelites, he said, released by Moses 
from the tyranny of the Pharaohs. After crossing the 
Red Sea, they became idolaters because of the influ- 
ence of the local peoples; and to escape the reproofs 
of Moses, they strayed away. Under the leadership 
of a man named Tanub, they drifted from continent 
to continent until finally they came to a place they 

called the Seven Caverns, a part of the kingdom of 
Mexico, where they founded the city of Tula. The 
story recounts that from Tanub, their leader, sprang 
the families of the Tula and the Quiche. 

Other traditions tell of four brothers who led their 
families from far distant lands to the east, over the 
oceans, to the new world where they settled and built 
cities. 

Popul Vuh, the sacred book of the ancient Quiche 
Maya (published by the University of Oklahoma 
Press ) , reveals that the early Americans believed in a 
trinity of deities. They believed also in a heavenly 
father and a heavenly mother, and that the Eternal 
Father and his Beloved Son were the creators of 
heaven and earth, The trinity are known as Caculha 
Huracan, Chipi-Caculha, and Rexa-Caculha. They 
were called the Heart of Heaven. 

Popul Vuh also speaks of the creation as having 
been accomplished by this trinity— three deities- 
creators and makers of all. These early Americans, 



now found to have been highly cultured in many ways, 
and deeply religious, did not believe in any sexless, 
formless, phantom like god. To them the trinity were 
real persons, who had sex and personality. And there 
was a mother in heaven. 

These early Americans, as shown in this same vol- 
ume, believed in a preexistence, and in a devil who 
also lived in that pre-earth life where he boasted of 
his brilliance and power, saying "my eyes are of silver, 
bright, resplendent as precious stones, as emeralds, 
my teeth shine like perfect stones, like the face of the 
sky. ... So then I am the sun, I am the moon, for 
all mankind." 

This evil being sought to usurp the glory of God, 
but failed. "His only ambition was to exalt himself 
and to dominate." 

The manuscript from ancient Indian sources ex- 
plains that at this point "neither our first mother nor 
our first father had yet been created." 

There is also the story of the woman being tempted 
to eat the fruit of a tree and asking, "Must I die? 
Shall I be lost if I pick one of this fruit?" 

The story of the great flood (Noah's) is recounted 
among the early Americans and Polynesians. 

Traditions in northern Mexico, principally among 
the Yaqui Indians, tell of the survival of a council of 
12 holy men who ministered religiously among the 
people. They also tell of a form of sacrament of the 
Lord's supper, wherein the natives eat and drink 
sacred emblems amid signs of great sadness, in re- 
membrance of their deity. 

Religion was a vital part of the lives of these 
ancient Americans, as it was with the Polynesians, 
who, it is believed, brought their religion with them 
in their migrations from America. Volumes have been 
written about it. 

Who was this Great White God? 

As Jesus Christ ministered in mortality among the 
Jews, he spoke of another body of believers— his other 
sheep. (See John 10.) He promised to go to them 
and minister among them. This he did— in America. 

In ancient America also prophets ministered, even 
as others did in Palestine, and during the same period 
of time. 

These western prophets wrote their sacred history, 
even as did their Palestinian counterparts, and in this 
manner another volume of scripture was prepared. 
Known as the Book of Mormon, it tells of God's deal- 
ings with ancient America, as the Bible relates the 
sacred history of the Old World. 

The Book of Mormon tells the facts about the 
coming of the White God, an event that occurred in 
America following his resurrection in Palestine. Mil- 
lions of people lived in America then. Some believed 



8 



Improvement Era 



in the coming of Christ to their land. Others scoffed. 
The believers served the Lord; the scoffers followed 
every evil path. 

When the crucifixion took place and the earthquakes 
shook Palestine, even worse quakes, tempests, and 
conflagrations swept over the western hemisphere. 
The Book of Mormon tells the story: 

"And it came to pass in the thirty and fourth year, 
in the first month, on the fourth day of the month, 
there arose a great storm, such an one as never had 
been known in all the land. 

"And there was also a great and terrible tempest; 
and there was terrible thunder, insomuch that it did 
shake the whole earth as if it was about to divide 
asunder. 

"And there were exceeding sharp lightnings, such 
as never had been known in all the land. 

"And the city of Zarahemla did take fire." (3 Ne. 
8:5-8.) 

According to the account, the damage was immense. 
Highways were broken up, cities were sunk, many 
persons were slain, and the whole face of the land 
was changed— all this in the space of about three 
hours. 

Then, ". . . it came to pass that there was thick 
darkness upon all the face of the land, insomuch that 
the inhabitants thereof who had not fallen could feel 
the vapor of darkness," (3 Ne. 8:20.) 

After this condition, which lasted for three days, 
there came a voice, ". . . and all the people did hear, 
and did witness of it saying: 

"O ye people of these great cities which have fallen, 
who are descendants of Jacob, yea, who are of the 
house of Israel, how oft have I gathered you as a 
hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and have 
nourished you. . . . 

". . . how oft would I have gathered you as a hen 
gathereth her chickens, and ye would not." (3 Ne. 
10:3-5.) 

Some days later, a great multitude gathered to- 
gether about the temple in the land Bountiful, and 
there came a voice three times: 

"And behold, the third time they did understand 
the voice which they heard; and it said unto them: 

"Behold my Beloved Son, in whom I am well 
pleased, in whom I have glorified my name— hear ye 
him. 

"And it came to pass, as they understood they cast 
their eyes up again towards heaven; and behold, they 
saw a Man descending out of heaven; and he was 
clothed in a white robe; and he came down and stood 
in the midst of them; and the eyes of the whole multi- 
tude were turned upon him, and they durst not open 
their mouths, even one to another, and wist not what 



it meant, for they thought it was an angel that had 
appeared unto them. 

"And it came to pass that he stretched forth his 
hand and spake unto the people, saying: 

"Behold, I am Jesus Christ, whom the prophets 
testified shall come into the world. 

"And behold, I am the light and the life of the 
world; and I have drunk out of that bitter cup which 
the Father hath given me, and have glorified the 
Father in taking upon me the sins of the world, in 
the which I have suffered the will of the Father in 
all things from the beginning. 

"And it came to pass that when Jesus had spoken 
these words the whole multitude fell to the earth; for 
they remembered that it had been prophesied among 
them that Christ should show himself unto them after 
his ascension into heaven. 

"And it came to pass that the Lord spake unto them 
saying; 

"Arise and come forth unto me, that ye may thrust 
your hands into my side, and also that ye may feel 
the prints of the nails in my hands and in my feet, 
that ye may know that I am the God of Israel, and 
the God of the whole earth, and have been slain for 
the sins of the world. 

"And it came to pass that the multitude went forth, 
and thrust their hands into his side, and did feel the 
prints of the nails in his hands and in his feet; and 
this they did do, going forth one by one until they had 
all gone forth, and did see with their eyes and did 
feel vdth their hands, and did know of a surety and 
did bear record, that it was he, of whom it was written 
by the prophets, that should come. 

"And when they had all gone forth and had wit- 
nessed for themselves, they did cry out with one 
accord, saying: 

"Hosanna! Blessed be the name of the Most High 
God! And they did fall down at the feet of Jesus, 
and did worship him." (3 Ne. 11:6-17.) 

In the days that followed, this same divine visitor 
introduced the blessing of the bread and wine as a 
sacrament; he called forth all their sick, afflicted, 
lame, blind, and dumb, and healed them; he organized 
an administration to teach and baptize in his name, 
and he counseled these leaders and the multitudes 
about his doctrine. And after many days, ". . . there 
came a cloud and overshadowed the multitude that 
they could not see Jesus. 

"And while they were overshadowed he departed 
from them, and ascended into heaven. And the disci- 
ples saw and did bear record that he ascended again 
into heaven." (3 Ne. 18:38-39.) 

This is the true story of the Great White God. 
He is Jesus the Christ, the Savior of all mankind, o 



September 1969 




an 



It all began 

when in the grade-school room 

the teacher told us 

what an atom was. 

She said 

that if you had a penny 

you could put 

a million atoms 

on the eye 

of Lincoln. 

She held 

a pin up 

by its head 

and said, 

"If atoms could be counted, 

then a hundred thousand atoms 

could be balanced 

on the point." 

We lived in a basement, 
which we did 
till I was twelve, 
and I remember 
coming home from school 
that night 



and lying on the floor 

below the small high window 

on the wall. 

The sun shone mellow 

in the afternoon 

and cast a ray 

across the room 

above my head. 

I lay and watched 

the dust descend 

and dance about 

within the ray. 

A million specks of dust. 

I followed one — one speck. 

It floated 

undisturbed 

by weight. 

The currents shifted 

and it lifted 

out of sight. 

I wondered 

on the tons of atoms 

in the dust around the room. 

I wondered, too, 
if worlds existed 



on the atoms 
in the dust. 

And then I ran outside 

and climbed the hill behind the barn. 

I looked out over house and orchard, 

stretched my gaze across the valley 

from the heavy granite mountains 

to the lake. 

I watched the sun 

drop over distant hills 

until I felt 

the roundness 

of the earth itself. 

I lay 

upon the hill 

and looked 

into the sky; 

Then pressed to earth 

with back and shoulders, 

wondered 

if the globe 

that swirled with me 

weren't in someone else's basement 

just a speck of floating dust. 




The 
Rene\A^I 

of the 

ferth 

to F^radisiacal 

Glory 



By Dr. Hyrum L. Andrus 



• The Saints have a work they must perform in order 
to prepare for the coming of Christ, who will renew 
the earth to a state of paradisiacal glory. In a very 
real sense, we are co-workers with the Lord in making 
the necessary preparations to usher in the millennium. 

God's design, the Prophet Joseph Smith wrote, is 
"to bring about the millennial glory." When the Lord's 
purposes are accomplished, the earth will "yield its 
increase, resume its paradisean glory, and become as 
the garden of the Lord." (Documentary History of the 
Church, Vol. 5, p. 61. ) But if this work is not done, 
the earth will be "utterly wasted" at Christ's coming. 
(D&C 2:3.) 

To prepare for Christ's coming, the Saints need to 
establish the kingdom of God on earth, a kingdom 
patriarchal in nature. Wives and husbands need to be 
sealed to each other, children to parents, and genera- 
tion to generation. Having established this divine 
society among the living, the sealing line will need to 
eventually extend back to Adam.^ 

The divine family order had its origin in heaven 
before the time of Adam. Abraham wrote: ". . . it 
came down from the fathers, from the beginning of 
time, yea, even from the beginning, or before the 
foundations of the earth. . . ." Eventually, when this 



order is built up among the faithful, some of the glory 
of the celestial family to be experienced throughout 
eternity will be reflected in the patriarchal order on 
earth.- Israel will have been gathered and Zion will 
have been established according to the pattern of the 
divine patriarchal order, and the earth will then be 
"renewed and receive its paradisiacal glory." (Article 
of Faith 10. ) 

The fact that the earth will be renewed to a para- 
disiacal state of glory implies that it was once in such 
a state. In order to understand this renewal, we must 
understand that before the fall, Adam lived in the 
presence of God with no veil between him and his 
maker. All things were in a state quite different from 
our present order of life. And except for the fall of 
Adam, "all things" that were created would have re- 
mained forever in the same state in which they were 
after the creation. (See 2 Ne. 2:22.) 

But all this was changed by the fall. God's glory 
was withdrawn, and life was reorganized on a temporal 
plane. (See D&C 29:31-32; 77:6.) 



Dr. Hyrum L. Andrus, first counselor in the BYU Tenth 
Stake presidency, is professor of modern scripture at 
Brigham Young University, author of Church books, and 
recipient of BYU's Karl G. Maeser Research Award. 



September 1969 



11 



Joseph Smith stressed, however, that Adam's "trans- 
gression did not deprive him of the previous knowl- 
edge with which he was endowed relative to the 
existence and glory of his Creator. . . ." {Lectures on 
Faith, 2:19.) 

Think for a moment what this means. Even though 
he fell, Adam remembered life in his former para- 
disiacal state. What, then, did it mean to Adam when 
the Lord said: ". . . as thou hast fallen thou mayest 
be redeemed, and all mankind, even as many as will"? 
(Moses 5:9.) What was redemption if not to be 
brought back, eventually, to a state of glory similar 
to that from which Adam fell? 

After the fall, Adam desired to regain the presence 
of God with his posterity who would obey the gospel, 
and to see the earth redeemed to a state of glory. But 
to achieve these objectives, he and his righteous 
children had to be organized into a divine family order 
patterned after celestial society. He therefore called 
the patriarchs who had been ordained among his 
descendants, with his righteous posterity, to the valley 
of Adam-ondi-Ahman. Presumably, Adam was con- 
cerned at this time with the organization of his righ- 
teous children into the divine patriarchal order. He 
also blessed them, Joseph Smith explained, because 
"he wanted to bring them into the presence of God." 
(DHC, Vol. 3, p. 388.) 

This desire was shared by other great patriarchs and 
prophets. "In the first ages of the world . . . there 
were Eliases raised up who tried to restore these very 
glories," the Prophet Joseph declared, "but did not 
obtain them." Later, Moses "sought to bring the 
children of Israel into the presence of God, through 
the power of the Priesthood, but he could not." ( Ibid. 
In regard to the effort of Moses, see D&C 84:19-24.) 

Though these ancient patriarchs and prophets 
failed to realize their desire, the Prophet Joseph Smith 
explained that "they prophesied of a day when this 
glory would be revealed," and he indicated that it 
would be in "the dispensation of the fullness of times, 
when God would gather together all things in one." 
(DHC, Vol. 3, p. 388.) This gathering includes the 
gathering of the Saints into the divine patriarchal 
order. When this is done, Adam's desire will be real- 
ized. Christ will come, and the earth will be renewed 
to a paradisiacal state of glory. 

Joseph Smith, in speaking of the obligation that the 
Saints have of building the divine patriarchal order, 
said of our righteous dead: "We cannot be made per- 
fect without them, nor they without us." ( Ibid., p. 389. ) 
Again he explained: "It is necessary that those who 
are going before and those who come after us should 
have salvation in common with us; and thus hath 



God made it obHgatory upon man." {DHC. Vol. 6. 
p. 313.) 

The Prophet taught that the final judgments inci- 
dent to Christ's coming will not be poured out upon 
the wicked until the divine patriarchal order is estab- 
lished. Before that time the Saints will receive the 
sealing ordinances in the house of the Lord, "thereby 
making their calling and election sure." ( DHC, Vol. 5, 
p. 530.) The spirit of Elijah will be manifested to 
build up the (divine patriarchal) kingdom and place 
"the seals of the Melchizedek Priesthood upon the 
house of Israel." In this way all things are to be made 
ready. "Then," he concluded, "Messiah comes to His 
Temple, which is last of all." {DHC, Vol. 6, p. 254. 
This will be a preliminary appearance of Christ among 
the Saints before he comes in glory in the clouds of 
heaven. ) 

When Jesus comes, it will be to reign on earth as 
King of kings and Lord of lords through the instru- 
mentality of the divine patriarchal order. ". . . we 
calculate to give the Elders of Israel their washings 
and anointings, and attend to those last and more im- 
pressive ordinances, without which we cannot obtain 
celestial thrones," Joseph Smith stressed. He therefore 
urged the Saints to build the Nauvoo Temple so that 
righteous men could "receive their endowments and 
be made kings and priests unto the Most High God." 
(DHC, Vol. 6, p. 319.) 

But this is not all. By establishing the divine patri- 
archal order, the Saints will prepare for Christ's 
coming to renew the earth to a paradisiacal state 
similar to that which prevailed before Adam's fall. 
"When these things are done," Joseph Smith stressed, 
as he spoke of the work to be accomplished, "the Son 
of Man will descend." Speaking of the millennial 
conditions that will then prevail, he added: "We may 
[then] come to an innumerable company of angels, 
have communion with and receive instruction from 
them." {DHC, Vol. 3, p. 389.) 

The Lord has revealed some of the transformations 
that will take place when the patriarchal order is estab- 
lished and Jesus comes in glory. The power of Christ's 
glory will consume the wicked and make all things 
that remain new. (See D&C 101:23-25.) The earth 
will be transfigured according to the pattern that 
was shown to Peter, James, and John upon the Mount 
of Transfiguration.^ God's "knowledge and glory" will 
"dwell upon all the earth." (D&C 101:25.) Revelations 
state that the earth will be "clothed with the glory of 
her God," and that Christ's glory will be upon his 
people. (See D&C 45:59; 84:101.) The enmity of man 
and of all flesh will cease. Because the fruits of the 
Holy Spirit— such as love, peace, and joy— are so abun- 



12 



Improvement Era 



dantly manifested, peace and tranquility will abound. 
(D&C 101:26; Isa. 11:6-9.) The spiritual union be- 
tween man and God will be perfected to the point that 
"whatsoever any man shall ask, it shall be given . . . 
him." (D&C 101:27.) Even before man calls, God will 
answer; and as man is speaking, God will hear. (Isa. 
65:24.) 

Several factors will make it so that Satan will not 
have power to tempt any man. For instance, all 
"corruptible things" will be consumed. The truth and 
light of Christ's glory will be manifested and spread 
abroad. Faith will increase, and righteousness will be 
established. Because of these and other reasons, the 
Lord will bind Satan during the thousand years.^ 
Meanwhile, the faithful Saints will receive the renewed 
earth for an inheritance. They will "multiply and wax 
strong," and their children will grow up without sin 
unto salvation. (D&C 45:58.) Since the corruptible 
things that cause man's physical body to deteriorate 
will have been largely destroyed, there will be no 
death, except that there will be a rapid change from 
the millennial state to that of the resurrection. (See 
D&C 101:24-25,30-31.) 

Finally, great knowledge will be revealed concern- 
ing the creation of the earth and the purposes of the 
creation, the history of all nations and peoples, laws, 
revolutions, and glories of the several spheres in the 
universe. But more important, the earth will "be full of 



the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the 
sea. ^ 

From the indication of the scriptures, the millennium 
will be a glorious age in which great blessings of both 
spiritual and temporal nature will be given to man. 
The work of preparing for that great day, the Prophet 
Joseph Smith declared, is "a work that God and angels 
have contemplated with delight for generations past; 
that fired the souls of the ancient patriarchs and 
prophets." It is a work that "is destined to bring about 
the destruction of the powers of darkness, the renova- 
tion of the earth, the glory of God, and the salvation 
of the human family." {DEC, Vol. 4, p. 610.) This is 
the work that the Saints are engaged in as they strive 
faithfully to build up the divine patriarchal order on 
earth and to sanctify themselves in preparation for the 
coming of the Lord. O 

FOOTNOTES 

^Joseph Smith taught that Adam cannot receive a fullness of glory until 
this family order is perfected and presented to Christ, who will present 
"the kingdom to the Father, which shall be at the end of the last dis- 
pensation." {DEC, Vol. 4, p. 209.) 

2In speaking of the doctrine of election in the flesh, Paul wrote that 
Israel has a legal claim to "the glory" of God. (See Rom. 9:4; also DHC, 
Vol. 4, pp. 359-60, where Joseph Smith discusses this passage.) That is, 
when Israel is organized according to the law of God, she has a claim 
to the glory of the celestial family, being an extension of that family to 
the earth. In accordance with this promise, Zion will be endowed in some 
measure with the glory of God before Christ comes in the clouds of 
heaven to consume the wicked and renew the earth. (See Isa. 4:5; 3 Ne. 
20:22 and 21:25; D&C 45:67.) 

3See D&C 63:20-21. The earth will still be a temporal sphere (D&C 
77:6), but it will be transfigured by the glory that will be revealed, 
somewhat as Moses was transfigured, as recorded in Moses 1:11. 

*See D&C 101:23-28; 1 Ne. 22:26; Rev. 20:1-3. Satan entices man 
through the corruption in the flesh. See 2 Ne. 2:28-29. 

5See D&C 84:98; 101:32-35; 121:28-30; 2 Ne. 30:16-18; Isa. 11:9. 



A Parent's Thoughts on Education 
By Evalyn M. Sandberg 



There is a formal teaching that 
he will receive in schools; 
and many plodding years must pass 
before he knows the rules. 

Another kind of learning will 
come automatically: 
he'll get it from associates 
and from some things he'll see. 

I would not have him know too soon 
age fails to make its wise, 



or that well-veiled deception lies 
behind some other eyes. 

I would not have him early learn 
the rushing, head-long greed 
of those who seek more than their own 
and leave someone in need. 

As time moves swiftly on its path, 
oh, world, be slow to trace 
this other kind of knowledge 
upon my child's fair face! 



September 1969 



13 



A special tribute to 



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Born September 8, 1873, President 
McKay grew to manhood in the 
small farming community of Huntsville, 
some 12 miles east of Ogden, Utah. 



Who would know, 

seeing the grass-grown road 

ivind into the pebbled driveway, 
The high-roofed barns, 

sagging beneath the seasons' weight 

of time and weather, 
The trees groivn taller through the years, 

thrusting from slender saplings 

sturdy trunks, and leafy branches, 
The rail fence warped and worn, and the small slat gate, 
The rolling fields and hills, 

the sturdy homes . . . 



President David 0. IVIcKay on his 96th birthday 

HuntsvUle 

By Mabel Jones Gabbott 



Illustrated by Ed Maryon 



Who would know 

that once a boy named David, 

like Israel's king, 

■walked on paths like these, 

kept in such a barn his best-loved horse, 

knew rain and sunshine haying in such fields, 

climbed on such fences, 

sivung perhaps on some such gate? 



We knoiu 

hov) glad once grew each small green blade of grass, 
how best beloved is every board and rail, 
how honored and revered this town becomes, 






For here in Huntsville, 
our Prophet as a lad 
"grew, ivaxed strong in spirit, 
filled with wisdom, 
and the grace of God." 




September 1969 



15 



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By President Alvin R. Dyer* 

of the First Presidency 

• If there is truly a generation gap, then the advantage 
is on the side of youth, because all youth needs to do 
is wait: 

"The impatient young of the 1960's can hardly wait. 
They will grow old too, in time, but first they will 
take their turn at remaking and running the world." 
( The Young, Americans, Time-Life Books, 1966. ) 

Looking to the future, the "now generation" will 
encounter events and movements that will be astound- 
ing. Their concern should be one of keeping a proper 
moral and spiritual balance, and not being carried 
away by popular or going things. Here is a verse that 
suggests that kind of balance: 

"Whatever weakens your reason, impairs the tender- 
ness of your conscience, obscures your sense of God, 
takes of your relish for spiritual things, 

"Whatever increases the Authority of the body over 
the mind— that thing is Sin—however harmless it may 
seem in itself." (Sussanah Wesley.) 

Man's meaning and purpose is motivated by a force 

"From a baccalaureate address given at Dixie College, St. George, 
Utah, June 6, 1969. 



^^^3^, 



Improvement Era 




s^ 



more profound than sex or ambition. Man feels the 
need of a relationship with God through adherence 
to God-given principles. From this feeling come faith 
and the assurance that he is not a transitive substance 
that will biologically pass out of existence, but instead 
is an eternal being. This truth, fully grasped, can 
produce the balance of light over darkness. 

The teaching of physiology and hygiene in our 
public schools at the right age level and in the right 
context— where proper coeducational aspects are ad- 
hered to, and where the school seeks to supplement 
the home and the church— can be appropriate and 
proper. The teaching of physiology and hygiene is 
supported by most legal codes in regard to public 
school law. This is one example: 

"It shall be the duty of all boards of education and 
officers in charge of schools and educational institu- 
tions supported in whole or in part by public funds 
to make provision for systematic and regular insti^uc- 
tion in physiology and hygiene, including special 
reference to the effects of stimulants and narcotics 
upon the human svstem." ( UtaJi Code Annotated 1953, 
S3-14-14. ) 

It is most vital that the moral and spiritual values 
of education, which have long been established and 
are constantly being reinstituted, should be associated 
with all teaching concerning the individual. I quote 
further from the Utah Code: 

"Educational Objectives— The result of two years of 
volunteer service by more than one hundred com- 
mittees acting under the call of a president of the 
United States gives the first charter right of each 
American child as 'Spiritual and Moral Training' and 
the second as 'Understanding and Protection of His 
Personality.' The seven cardinal objectives of education 
first announced and advocated by the National Educa- 
tion Association in 1918 and since accepted by edu- 
cational leaders throughout the nation are health, 
citizenship, vocations, worthy use of leisure, worthy 
home membership, ethical character and the funda- 
mental processes or tools of education. Six of these 
have to do primarily with personality or character 



development. It therefore becomes advisable to direct 
the schools in their educational activities and to 
encourage the schools to unite with community organi- 
zations in such plans and procedures as will realize 
these important educational objectives in the lives 
of persons under eighteen years of age." (53-14-9.) 

These directives regarding the body and its func- 
tions are designed to provide a proper balance of 
learning, in a wholesome and sensitive manner. But 
they do not suggest license in promoting emotionally 
injurious and embarrassing discussion of the sexual 
functions of bodily organs in a coeducational setting. 
While tasteful discussion of social manners and inter- 
personal responsibilities with young men and women, 
in mixed groups can be a wholesome experience, there 
seems to be no sound educational justification for 
class discussions of physiology that are developed 
around stimulating visual aids depicting male and 
female reproductive relationships. 

Sex educators are suggesting indoctrination on this 
subject from kindergarten through the twelfth grade. 
This increases the tendency of precocity. The imma- 
ture child is brought at once among temptations he 
cannot resist because he cannot understand them. It 
causes him to grow old before his time. 

Precocious fruit is not good fruit. The first ripened 
apples often have a worm at the core. What is worth 
having must bide its time. To seize it before its time 
is to pluck it prematurely. 

The idea that sex education is strictly educational 
and does not involve morals is a deception and does 
not conform to gospel teachings and established edu- 
cational standards. 

It has been said that "familiar things happen and 
mankind does not bother about them. It requires a 
very unusual mind to undertake the analysis of the 
obvious." (Evelyn Whitehead, Science and the Mod- 
ern World [The Macmillan Co., 1953].) 

It is in this light that I speak of spiritual and moral 
training as the charter right of our youth in the school 
classroom. To provide safe guidelines, these values 
should be foremost, particularly in our maturation 
courses of study. 

Principles that harmonize with gospel standards 
have been reinstituted time and time again as respon- 
sible commissions appointed by U.S. Presidents have 
met to give serious thought to the training of our 
youth. From the Educational Policies Commission 
Report of 1951 I quote the following: 

"In educational terms, this value requires a school 
system which, by making freely available the common 
heritage of human association and human culture, 
opens to every child the opportunity to grow to his 
full physical, intellectual, moral, and spiritual stature. 



September 1969 



17 



It favors those plans of school organization and in- 
struction which recognize and meet the varying needs 
and aspirations of individuals." ( Italics added. ) 

With regard to the teacher, upon whom falls the 
real burden, and who reflects the extent of his or her 
morals or the lack of them in his or her teachings, 
the commission report has this to say: 

"Since the ultimate success of a program to develop 
moral and spiritual values depends largely on the 
teacher, the institutions which educate teachers 
should give full recognition to these values in their 
curricula. These values should also receive emphasis 
by in-service workshops and other developmental 
programs. Personal character of an acceptable quality 
to serve as an example to American youth often deter- 
mines the success or failure of a teacher in teaching 
subject matter as well as in contributing to moral 
development. Character, therefore, should invariably 
be an important consideration in the employment of 
a teacher. The teacher education institutions should 
consider character, along with scholarship and teach- 



" . . . inhibition-- the 
control of the impulse-- is the 
first principle of civilization" 



ing skills, in the selection of students, in judging the 
competence of student teachers, and in the recom- 
mendation of prospective teachers to boards of 
education. 

"School administrators, having placed an emphasis 
on character in the selection process, should encourage 
teachers to use initiative and imagination in the de- 
velopment of their subject matter in ways which teach 
moral and spiritual values." (Moral and Spiritual 
Values in the Public Schools, Educational Policies 
Commission, 1951, p. 55.) 

And again, from the report of the President's Com- 
mission on National Goals, in 1960, the following: 

"The family is at the heart of society. The educa- 
tional process begins and is served most deeply in 
the home. 

"The major domestic goals of equality and educa- 
tion depend overwhelmingly on individual attitudes 
and actions. 

"It is the responsibility of men and women in every 
walk of life to maintain the highest standards of 
integrity." (Programs for Action in the Sixties, Goals 
for Americans, The Report of the President's Com- 



mission on National Goals, 1960, p. 22.) 

Herein, it seems, is the crux of the whole matter! 

In the light of these educational objectives, the idea 
is presumed that physiology and hygiene, with proper 
content and with proper age and group orientation in 
the school classroom, and in support of teachings in 
the home, may be pursued with dignity when asso- 
ciated with moral and spiritual values. 

The sexual impulse should be played down. It is 
strong enough without encouragement. "We have 
blown it up with a thousand forms in incitation, ad- 
vertisement, emphasis and display, and have armed it 
with the doctrine that inhibition is dangerous, whereas 
inhibition— the control of impulse— is the first principle 
of civilization." (Will Durant, "Man Is Wiser Than 
Any Man," Readers Digest, November 1968, p. 86. 
Italics added. ) 

But certain sex educators claim that a new defini- 
tion is needed for the meaning of morals, and this 
relativistic movement has led to what is now called 
the new morality. Anything that is new should be 
compared with the old when one attempts a justifica- 
tion of a changed definition. Perhaps the following 
comparisons will help us to understand what is meant 
when reference is made to a new morality: 



The Old Morality 

"Thou shalt not commit 
adultery; and he that 
committeth adultery, and 
repenteth not, shall be 
cast out." (D&C 42:24.) 

"And verily I say unto 
you, as I have said before, 
he that looketh on a 
woman to lust after her, 
or if any shall commit 
adultery in their hearts, 
they shall not have the 
Spirit, but shall deny the 
faith and shall fear." 
(D&C 63:16.) 

"Be not deceived: nei- 
ther fornicators, nor idol- 
aters, nor adulterers, nor 
effeminate, nor abusers of 
themselves with man- 
kind, . . . shall inherit the 
kingdom of God." ( 1 Cor. 
6:9-10.) 



The New Morality 

Speaking of infidelity 
or adultery, a modem sex 
educator makes this com- 
ment: 

"Infidelity, extramarital 
affairs, aren't true adven- 
tures; the roles played in 
casual sex are stilted and 
soporific. Within the well- 
stabilized, committed 
marriage, a few extra- 
marital episodes won't 
alter the tapestry, but I 
don't believe any mar- 
riage can withstand the 
erosion of repeated infi- 
delities." ( Coronet, May 
1969, p. 17.) 

Supposedly the relativ- 
istic category is modern 
and, according to schol- 
ars, is of the new morality. 
According to definitions 
in this category, a moral- 
ity of consequences is 



18 



Improvement Era 




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September 1969 



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"Flee also youthful 
lusts: but follow righ- 
teousness, faith, charity, 
peace." (2 Tim. 2:22.) 

"Wherefore God also 
gave them up to unclean- 
ness through the lusts of 
their own hearts, to dis- 
honour their own bodies 
between themselves." 

(Rom. 1:24.) 



created, whereby sexual 
acts are judged according 
to their effects. 

Sex acts under this sys- 
tem are right or wrong 
only in terms of scientifi- 
cally measurable conse- 
quences. (SIECUS [Sex 
Information and Educa- 
tion Council of the Unit- 
ed States] Study Guide 
No. 9, p. 9.) 

A third category, which 
is identified as the hedo- 
nistic position, is charac- 
terized by devotion to 
pleasure as a way of life. 
"It creates ... a morality 
of indulgence" which the 
sex educators argue can 
be a responsible indul- 
gence. ( SIECUS Study 
Guide No. 9, p. 10. ) 



These "old morality" statements are referred to by 
our modern sex education teachers as being in an 
absolutistic category— or a position of a morality of 
commandment. (SIECUS Study Guide No. 9, p. 8.) 

But let it be remembered that the morality of com- 
mandment spoken of emanates from God, the source 
of all intelligence, and is a positive divine guideline 
to salvation, being fully and completely oriented to 
truth, which is eternal. 

In my April 1969 general conference talk I made 
this summation concerning sensitivity training, which 
I refer to again, because of the widespread modern- 
day use of this training: 

". . . sensitivity training teaching methods, tvhen 
abusively used, not only break down barriers of pri- 
vacy, but also provide the techniques for mass, rather 
than personal, decision. This tends to destroy the 
agency of man and is therefore evil in concept." ( Era, 
June 1969, p. 41. Italics added. ) 

Let me differentiate between training and therapy. 
Training is a learning process designed to help normal, 
healthy participants develop new skills and more 
effective behavior patterns. Therapy is a process of 
helping persons with emotional disturbances to reduce 
those disturbances that are preventing them from 
effectively determining their own action. Groups can 
be used for training or for therapy purposes. Some 
group methods that may be appropriate for therapy 



are not necessarily consistent with training goals. 

Authorities generally agree that from training 
groups comes the here-and-now aspect, and they do 
not deal in the privacies of one's past behavior. 

Thus, in a training group, there should be no con- 
fession of problems or personal difficulties one has 
had in his past. The emphasis should be on looking 
at how effective a person's behavior is in working 
in the group. Exposures of past difficulties or problems 
of a private nature have no place in group training. 

Men with experience have long recognized that 
groups are indispensable to society and serve many 
worthwhile functions. It should be equally apparent 
that groups are not designed to be ends in themselves, 
but are means to serving the individual. The primary 
function of any worthy group, be it the family or some 
other organized unit, is to invite and sustain self- 
determination in the individual. Coercion is an outlaw 
in any group training. A well-organized training group 
should have the element of helping group members 
resist the tyranny of group coercion. 

The use of individual confession of past behavior 
with a feedback to a group is an exploitation of the 
rights of the individual. Its use only tends to increase 
the peril of such situations to create the tyranny of 
coercion, and is contrary to gospel teachings concern- 
ing the law of agency. This principle is also recognized 
by the Education Policies Commission, which has 
said: 

"The inherent worth of every human being is basic 
in the teachings of Christianity and of many other 
great religions. The individual personality can acquire 
a capacity for moral judgments and a sense of moral 
responsibility. This doctrine sharply challenges every 
form of oppression. It implies that each human being 
should have every possible opportunity to achieve by 
his own efforts a feeling of security and competence 
in dealing with the problems arising in daily life." 
(Moral and Spiritual Values in the Public Schools, 
Educational Policies Commission, 1951, p. 55.) 

Deviations in sensitivity training often occur when 
the teacher seeks to impose himself, rather than the 
subject material. This, aside from its implications, is 
a mark of teaching failure. 

Processes in coercive control of human behavior 
can lead to loss of agency. This particular type of 
group training, which is actually an attempt at therapy, 
tends to break down self-reliance, and places decisions 
for the individual upon the group or mass. Self- 
reliance is a needed attribute to development of 
qualities of good stemming from free will and choice. 

Any situation that could coerce the individual to 
make decisions would have no true foundation. In 
this, as the Lord explained to the Prophet Joseph 



20 



Improvement Era 



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21 




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22 



To Fathers 

By Gay N. Blanchard 

It is hard to let a child go, 

A beloved child, one close to the 

heart. 
It is hard, knowing his weakness 
And ivhere he might fall, 
To sever the tie 
That keeps him in the security 

of your eye. 

So God, our Father, 

Coidd not let us go from him 

Until he had made sure 

That someone, 

An extension of himself, 

Woidd love and care. 

He knew we needed 

Someone to make real 

The prayers sent up to him 

For shelter, raiment, food; 

Someone to help make good 

His hopes for us. 

To help us keep in memory heav- 
en's home; 

And by persuasion, 
patience, 
kindness, 
self-controlled example 

Prepare us to return in safety 
there. 

He gave this precious steward- 
ship 
To fathers. 

Still according to his righteous- 
ness, they have free choice; 

And those tvho dare accept the 
challenge 

To be his agents, our protectors, 
here on earth 

Are in training, surely, 

Someday to he gods. 



Improvement Era 



Smith, one may have something bestowed upon him 
by compulsion, but he could not truly receive it, as 
it would not be his possession. 

"For what doth it profit a man if a gift is bestowed 
upon him, and he receive not the gift? Behold, he 
rejoices not in that which is given unto him, neither 
rejoices in him who is the giver of the gift." (D&C 
88:33.) 

You will notice that he cannot rejoice or use that 
which is conferred upon him because, having been 
forced upon him, it is not his possession. You may 
observe, by reading further from this revelation, the 
eternal nature of this law. 

By divine decree the individual becomes like unto 
a God when through personal volition he comes to 
know good from evil. (See Gen. 3:22.) 

Dr. Carl Jung, noted scientist of the mind, makes 
a contributing statement to the need of self-reliance 
and personal motivation, or self-direction, with these 
words : 

"It always has been and still is the great question 
how to get the ordinary human to the point where 
he can make up his own mind to draw the right 
conclusion and do the right thing, or how to make him 
listen at all. His moral and mental inertia and his 
notorious prejudices are the most serious obstacles to 
any moral or spiritual renaissance." (Cited by Dr. 
James R. Hine, in Alvin R. Dyer, Who Am I? [Deseret 
Book Company, 1966], p. 24.) 

I believe it important, from a gospel viewpoint, to 
understand the evil principle of unrighteous dominion 
or compulsion, which can be exercised upon the souls 
of men, as compared with righteous dominion and 
agency. In order to do this, let us refer back to the 
primeval period, concerning which we are fortunate 
to have revealed information from the Lord. 

The center of the preexistent controversy concerned 
Lucifer or Satan, a son of the morning, who came 
before the council of heaven and proposed a plan of 
redemption from the spiritual death of mortal exis- 
tence. He proposed that the law of agency be 
discarded, thereby eliminating personal volitions of 
obedience or disobedience, and the need for a knowl- 
edge of good and evil. 

As evidenced by a revelation from the Lord to 
Moses, we learn that this was a proposal whereby 
Lucifer sought to aggrandize himself by receiving the 
glory of the Father, and thus become the redeemer: 

"And I, the Lord God, spake unto Moses, saying: 
That Satan, whom thou hast commanded in the name 
of mine Only Begotten, is the same which was from 
the beginning, and he came before me, saying— Behold, 
here am I, send me, I will be thy son, and I will 
redeem all mankind, that one soul shall not be lost, 



and surely I will do it; wherefore give me thine 
honor." (Moses 4:1.) 

The very nature of Lucifer's plan of coercion or 
compulsion would be contrary to divine law, which 
irrefutably establishes the fact that all acquisitions of 
life have their beginning in personal and individual 
choice. And even though God knew that some of 
his children born in mortality would not measure up 
and would, through willful wrong choices between 
good and evil and through disobedience to eternal 
laws of righteousness, eventually after mortal existence 
be assigned to realms not in his presence, still, he also 
knew that the only chance of spiritual redemption 
for any of his children would come from the applica- 
tion of the law of agency, as he explained to Moses: 

"Wherefore, because that Satan rebelled against me, 
and sought to destroy the agency of man, which I, 
the Lord God, had given him, and also, that I should 
give unto him mine own power; by the power of mine 
Only Begotten, I caused that he should be cast down." 
(Moses 4:3.) 

The nature of the proposal made by Lucifer would 
make of man a thing to be acted upon with a complete 
loss of willful and personal decision, which would be 
contrary to the true principle, as explained by the 
prophet Lehi: 

". . . they have become free forever, knowing good 
from evil; to act for themselves and not to be acted 
upon. ..." (2 Ne. 2:26.) 

Concerning this principle, the Prophet Joseph Smith 
stated: "The contention in the pre-mortal existence 
was due to the fact that there would be certain souls 
that would not be saved, whereas the devil, or Luci- 
fer, said he could save them all." ( Times and Seasons, 
Vol. 5, p. 616. ) 

This proposal, involving the surrendering of the law 
of agency, was rejected; and the plan advocated by 
the Firstborn Son of God, that the law of agency 
would continue in mortality, was accepted. 

It is not difficult to recognize that in Lucifer's plan 
the element of compulsion or mass coercion upon the 
individual would be placed in effect without any 
recognition of values, good or evil, right or wrong, 
and therefore would be devoid of any moral conse- 
quence. 

From the same revealed information, the Lord ex- 
plained why Lucifer— or Satan, as he was then called 
for proposing such a plan— was expelled from the 
presence of God, never to return. 

The plan that was accepted provided that man 
would have the right of agency as he would be con- 
fronted with opposites in mortality, and that with self- 
direction he could rise above all. "This would make 
certain his understanding of the difference between 



September 1969 



23 



laws which would elevate and insure further progres- 
sion, and the opposite which would bring about a 
retrogression. By choosing right over wrong, man 
would thus take unto himself the power which comes 
from volitional decision. In this manner he becomes 
like unto the Gods who have attained perfection by 
constant right decision through the power of agency." 
(Dyer, op. cit., p. 141.) 

From the following revelation we learn that to 
exercise compulsion or unrighteous dominion over an 
individual in any degree is to be denied the power 
that leads men into all truth. This has a specific 
reference to the priesthood, but the same principle 
applies to anyone who exercises or uses conditions 
of compulsion: 

". . . when we undertake to cover our sins, or to 
gratify our pride, our vain ambition, or to exercise 
control or dominion or compulsion upon the souls of 
the children of men, in any degree of unrighteousness, 
behold, the heavens withdraw themselves; the Spirit 

"Another principle that appears 
to be most often violated 
in so-called training groups 
is that of confession" 



of the Lord is grieved; and when it is withdrawn. 
Amen to the priesthood or the authority of that man. 

"Behold, ere he is aware, he is left unto himself, to 
kick against the pricks, to persecute the saints, and 
to fight against God." (D&G 121:37-38.) 

"Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he 
will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak 
of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall 
he speak: and he will shew you things to come." 
(John 16:13.) 

It is not difficult to identify, on the basis of this 
eternal law, the ill effects that can be caused by the 
abusive and unwarranted use of coercion in group 
behavior techniques. 

Another principle of the gospel that appears to be 
most often violated in so-called training groups is that 
of confession. Concerning personal confession of past 
behavior, the Lord, speaking of the manner in which 
confessions are to be made, gives this instruction: 

"And if thy brother or sister offend thee, thou shalt 
take him or her between him or her and thee alone; 
and if he or she confess thou shalt be reconciled." 
(D&C 42:88.) 



"And if thy brother or sister offend many, he or she 
shall be chastened before many. 

"And if any one offend openly, he or she shall be 
rebuked openly, that he or she may be ashamed. And 
if he or she confess not, he or she shall be delivered 
up unto the law of God. 

"If any shall offend in secret, he or she shall be 
rebuked in secret, that he or she may have opportunity 
to confess in secret to him or her whom he or she 
has offended, and to God, that the church may not 
speak reproachfuUv of him or her." ('D&C 42:90-92.) 

A member of the Church who has committed a 
serious transgression should confess the same to his 
or her spiritual leader, the bishop. 

It is to be observed that in each condition referred 
to, the confession is to come willingly through a self- 
directed method, from within the person. This is a 
principle, according to the Lord, by which we shall 
be governed. 

Brigham Young, speaking no doubt in the spirit of 
this revelation on confession, said: 

"li I am. faulty towards my God, I will keep my 
faults from the people as long as I can. Is there any 
good reason for this? There is. Were I to relate here 
to you my private faults from day to day, it xoould not 
only do you no good, hut it would injure you . . . 
and it would weaken and not strengthen either the 
speaker or the hearer, and would give the enemy more 
power. ... I pray the Lord Almighty to so preserve 
me that you cannot find fault with me righteously. 
Do you not desire the same? 

"I have my weakness, and you have yours; but if I 
am inclined to do that which is wrong, I will not make 
my wrong a means of leading others astray. ... I 
belie^'e in coming out and being plain and honest with 
that which should be made public, and in keeping to 
yourselves that which should be kept. If you have 
your weaknesses, keep them hid from your brethren 
as much as you can. You never hear me ask the people 
to tell their follies. ... If you have sinned against the 
people, confess to them. If you have sinned against 
a family or a neighborhood, go to them and confess. 
If you have sinned against your Ward, confess to 
your Ward. If you have sinned against one individual, 
take that person hy yourselves and make your con- 
fession to him. And if you have sinned against your 
God, or against yourselves, confess to God, and keep 
the matter to yourselves, for I do not want to know 
anything about it. . . . 

"We wish to see people honestly confess as they 
should and what they should." (Journal of Discourses, 
Vol. 8, pp. 361-62. Italics added.) 

With regard to the principle of the agency of man, 
there keep running through my mind these verses 



24 



Improvement Era 



that we have used in the mission field: 

"Know this, that every soul is free 

To choose his life and what he'll be, 

For this eternal truth is given 

That God will force no man to heav'n. 

"He'll call, persuade, direct aright. 

And bless him with wisdom, love and light. 

In nameless ways be good and kind, 

But never force the human mind. 

"Freedom and reason make us men; 

Take these away, what are we then? 

Mere animals, and just as well 

The beasts may think of heav'n or hell." 

—William C. Gregg, Hymns, No. 90 

We see, in the divine wisdom of God, the effects 
of the eternal laws of personal redemption as brought 
to the beclouded consciousness of man by the power 
and administration of the Holy Ghost. Each law is 

correlated to bring about the change needed to pre- 
pare man for his place in eternity. The innate recog- 
nition of the divine leads to faith in God and in life. 
This awakening light reveals unto man himself his 
own condition and the need of change— the need to 
repent of such wrong-doings with which he is beset, 
so that he can continue in the way of peace, power, 
and further enlightenment. But the overt act of man 
to accomplish this requires decision, and decision is 
an act of agency; thus, we observe the correlation of 
the laws of faith and repentance with agency. It is 
in this self-directed process that acquisition of a prin- 
ciple becomes effective. Any other method produces 
a false possession of a gift that cannot be had. 

Never in all of man's human endeavor does he rep- 
resent the principle of law of agency more effectively 
than when he is in the process of repentance. There 
is no experience in the earth-life existence of man 
when man will glorify God the Father and his Only- 
Begotten Son more, or when he will fulfill a basic 
purpose of his mortal sojourn, than when he exercises 
his own volition to overcome wrong. While he be- 
comes like unto God, "to know good from evil," he 
becomes a god when he consistently, through self- 
direction, incorporates the good and casts aside the 
evil. To deprive man of this privilege would be to 
deny him his potential. To impose it upon him by 
force would be ineffectual. 

I have referred to some abuses that have crept into 
sensitivity training, the nature of which is acknowl- 
edged by the National Training Laboratories, the 
pioneer in group dynamic research and the founders 
of the idea of laboratory training process. This orga- 
nization is extremely concerned witli the abuses that 
are now cropping up in the name of sensitivity training. 



There can be no doubt that if these abuses are avoided 
there are definite areas of good that can be accom- 
plished in legitimate group training. 

Before concluding my remarks, I offer these sug- 
gestions to our Latter-day Saint educators, concerning 
whom it is hoped that an ever increasing number will 
go forth from our Church-oriented schools and insti- 



Never does man represent 

the law of agency nnore effectively 

than when he is in the 

process of repentance" 



tutes to leaven the educational atmosphere wherever 
they may teach. Of these, the Church is indeed for- 
tunate to have so many who are outstanding in the 
fields of teaching, research, and administration in 
many of the great universities and colleges throughout 
the land. In the light of deceptive objectives found 
in modern trends in particular areas, we look with 
constant hope that these men and women, representa- 
tive of the Church, will a'chieve and keep a proper 
balance with gospel orientation constantly in view, 
especially in fields of sociology, maturation, and group 
training. 

Possessed with a background of knowledge in the 
revealed truths of the restored gospel, they stand on 
the front line, and, if they will see it, they have a 
peculiar and unlimited opportunity of leadership so 
much needed in this time of value crisis. The chal- 
lenge is before them to magnify their priesthood in 
upholding moral and spiritual values. This feffort calls 
for perpetual adjustment and reevaluation of certain 
concepts in the fields they have chosen to follow. 
Their response to this challenge will have a far-reach- 
ing effect and will be recognized in more places than 
they have perhaps thought possible. 

In conclusion, may I again refer to the spiritual 
fact that the Lord has told us to live by the pattern 
of gospel laws. Said he: "And again, I will give unto 
you a pattern in all things, that ye may not be de- 
ceived; for Satan is abroad in the land, and he goetli 
forth deceiving the nations." (D&C 52:14.) 

I bear testimony that if we will keep our place 
secure in the kingdom of God, if we are to safeguard 
our lives against the evils of the day, we must walk 
in paths of righteousness in whatever field we choose 
to follow and keep close to that way of life found 
in the pattern of the gospel. O 



September 1969 



25 




Psychologists Honor 
BYU Graduate Student 

Gary Schwendiman, 
a doctoral candidate at 
Brigham Young University, 
has been named by 
the American Psychological 
Association as one 
of ten outstanding young 
psychologists in the 
United States and Canada. 
The honor includes 
attendance at the two-week 
international Congress 
of Psychology in London. 




Carnegie Hero 
Medal Awarded 

Russell L Beck, 
deceased member of the 
Lakewood (California) 
Fourth Ward, has been 
awarded posthumously the 
Carnegie Hero Medal. 
The award, which also carries 
a two-year $50 a month 
stipend, was awarded 
for Brother Beck's 
efforts to save a worker 
who had succumbed to 
fumes in a gas-filled 
manhole. Brother Beck 
was active in work 
with the youth in the 
Church. 




Tabernacle Choir Sings in San Diego 

An estimated 30,000 persons 

recently filled the new San Diego, 

California, Stadium to hear the Tabernacle 

Choir sing a "Happy Birthday Salute" 

concert in honor of San Diego's 

200th anniversary this year. 

The event was widely heralded by 

press and public alike. 




Californian Named 
Outstanding Educator 

Richard L. Hanna, ward 
clerk of the Huntington 
Beach (California) 
Fourth Ward, has been 
selected by the California 
Junior Chamber of 
Commerce as one of 
the ten outstanding young 
educators in the state. 
Brother Hanna, an 
elementary school teacher, 
is co-author of a 
science test series for junior 
high school students. 




Education Association 
Secretary Appointed 

Elmer S. Crowley of the 
Rock Creek (Maryland) 
Ward has been 
named executive secretary 
of the National Council 
of State Education 
Associations, with 
headquarters in Washington, 
D.C. Formerly head of 
the Idaho Education 
Association, Brother Crowley 
has been administrative 
director of the national 
organization. 




Hill Cumorah Pageant Presented 

The annual Hill Cumorah Pageant in western New York 
was again staged this year to approximately 100,000 
viewers during a six-day run. This year's presentation 
was marked by a widened seating area, removal 
of some trees to give greater visibility, addition of electrically 
operated water curtains, a new sound and lighting 
system, and a new 100-seat theater for the 
visitor's center. The pageant is one of the major 
religious pageants in North America. 



26 



Improvement Era 



LDS Scene 



i^'' 




Wli 



aim 








All-Church Tennis Champions 

The all-Church tennis 

championship tournament 

was recently held in Salt Lake City 

Some 300 natters from Hawaii to 

Great Britain competed for 50 title 

trophies in 34 divisions. 

Top awards went to Joseph Cowley, 

men's ranked singles, 

and Janice Stevens, women's 

ranked singles. 

The four-day event was held 

at Salt Lake City's Liberty Park. 



September 1969 



A NEW BOOKCLUB! 



A BOOKCLUB TO 
REPRESENT BOOKS FROM 



CHOOSE ONE FREE 
BOOK - 

OUR GIFT TO YOU 
FOR JOINING!! 




NAim 





A. Ancient Apostles B. The Nauvoo Temple C. Gospel & Man's 
by Pres. McKay by Cecil McGavin Relationship to Diety 



BECOME A 
CHARTER MEMBER 
BY PURCHASING 
A BOOK . . . 

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the Life of President 
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3. Doctrines 
Covenants Speaks 
Roy Doxey $5.95 

4. Science and 
Mormonism 

Cook & Cook $5.95 

5. LDS Family 
Blaine Porter $4.95 

6. Essentials in Ch. 
History - Joseph 
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7. Discourses of 
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Bks.by John Hawkes: 

8. 4 Hr. Book of Mor- 
mon Digest $1.95 

9. 2 Hr. New Testa- 
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10. Scripture Cards 
{325 cards) $2.50 





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27 





It was still morning— maybe near noon, as I was 
hungry— but here deep in the Hawaii Temple my 
timing (but not my direction) was off from being 
across the world from Taiwan. I needed orienting. 
The clock's hands might as well join. I sat confirming 
for the dead, and as I faced northwest toward Taipei 
I thought, you don't say the word death heedlessly. 
Baptizing for the passed-beyond ones is better. 

I opened my eyes a little. My white pants and shirt 
clung. They were a good fitting, because I went for 
fittings three times and the tailor thought I would 
never finish, but these had to be perfect. A man 
doesn't fly to Hawaii every day, to marry and work 
in the temple, to receive his endowments. Meimei, 
my wife, tailored our rice-white robes. I felt like a 
pioneer, with the 39 others who came. With these 
officials and bankers and rice farmers and shoe cutters 
we had set our faces east, and we flew bravely out of 
my loved Taiwan, our trip on the front page of the 
Mandarin Daily News. Some of us took American 
names. On our way we ate at a Tokyo restaurant 
surrounded by pink-blossomed cherry trees. I can 
never remember if those are Chinese or Japanese 
cherry trees. 

So at the font's edge I waited for the next name's 
confirmation. It was a beautiful name. It was our 
own— a Chinese name we researched and found of 
Meimei's ancestors: Hang Chung Jen— not just the 
passed-on, but the Chinese passed-on. Not strangers. 

When we had arrived, the temple glowed in the 
mandarin sun white-hot at us, a pearl in a lotus, a 
touchstone where heaven and earth, Yang and Yin, 
converged willingly. I said to her, "A first-class 
temple." 

It was a common ground for the living, the wax- 
ing, the younging, creative enough to synthesize their 
living and religion and have fun at it. I had my 
Psalms with me— the first part of the Bible I ever read. 
Religious white did not mean mourning here. I liked 
the landscaping's economy of balance. This was color. 
Exciting. Heaven was smiling. We, I thought, have 
come a long way. And much waiting. 

Last winter at the New Year of the Monkey I went 
back to Taroko Gorge at East Taiwan (where I worked 
a summer ago paving and driving a patch truck for 
Taiwan Cement) with Meimei to ask, after grievous 
rehearsal (being a novice), her to marry with me. She 
took my hand and we hiked. For I knew (and she 
knew too) the Church members would come to the 



temple this summer, and she said yes. We have saved 
money because we were graduated, I working for 
her father at the corporation. I gave up a graduate 
scholarship at Taiwan National for an equal one in 
Utah, and we spent the spring getting our visa details 
done. 

There was the moon at Taroko, gauze-covered 
before the rains, and a jet cutting across like a spider, 
leaving one thread going east over the gorge. And I 
was fearing and trembhng— a little seed of panic at 
proposing and going to America and all. 

We strolled across the footbridge in the high fog 
in Taroko, and I was glad we wore tennis shoes and 
that I was young high in the mountains. I waited for 
her, helping her up. A man should be kind. And deft. 
I grinned wide. "Tell me your joke, Chan," Meimei 
said. Her eyes are huge like apricots. She would soon 
be Hu Yen Ling, but I called her Meimei the way 
sweethearts were called in China before. 

"Ai ya, I'm happy." 

"How now?" 

"I just asked if I can give myself away to the girl 
I love, and she assented." 

We kept up walking. I had involved myself in her 
family, and I became of her clan, Weng, at 23 and 
she at 22. Now I would be a patriarch, the generations 
in order, with China's best cook to wife. I would wake 
in mornings beside her and reach out. And she would 
be there, this existence being good. In a bright hour 
I would remember loneliness as a long-ago knock at 
my gate, when I was disoriented. 

Coal smoke from the cold canyon air came down, 
like smoke at the houses around our university in 
Taipei. We heard a folk song coming out that set us 
in harmony. I wondered if some chemistry would 
happen upon sharing my name with Meimei and at 
what moment her name changed. 

The old familiar air of Taroko. I loved the sound 
of the river below by the inn where we had fried rice 
for lunch (not as good as Meimei's); dogs barked in 
the houses above. My soul walked comfortably on 
that soil with her. They were both mine. Both were 
necessary. And tangible. 

A man is lucky to have a wife and all. And so I 
kissed her and was out of breath from hiking, and 



Robert J. Morris is a Brigham Young University student 
specializing in Asian studies, an interest motivated by 
his mission in the Far East. 




By Robert J. Morris 



remembered the first kiss at college when my contact 
lens fell out. Thus I meditated. So winter passed to 
spring and spring to summer, and I never knew them 
more beautiful or swift. Every time we were together 
we would repeat again our plans for America, which 
we had never seen, and we never grew weary. 

We had asked my uncle to arrange the marriage 
with Meimei's parents and for branch president Huang 
to perform the rites. (Whenever he interviews, he asks 
you what your favorite scripture is.) We initiated our 
marriage there as a pre-enactment, then again in 
Hawaii. Hawaii was a crux. We would go to the 
America mainland for living and graduate study in 
Utah. We planned in ambition, like many of our 
friends who emigrated to be like their friends. The 
thought of going all the way to America thrilled me 
at first to be with the Church firsthand. Yes, Taroko 
was pretty, like the Pali and Waikiki, really the only 
place in Taiwan that looked like the Chinese paintings 
you see from older dynasties. But I missed our island, 
and at the temple I began to doubt the propriety of 
home's having a new name. 

My confirming fini,shed, I stepped again into the 
warm font, and my white clothes rippled. I and my 
branch president bowed slightly and smiled. The font 
walls were watermarked. He said, "What is your 
favorite scripture?" 

I said, "Mosiah, eighteen chapter, thirty verse." 
Another 40 names for the passed-beyond ones, per- 
fecting this day their candidacy as beginners in the 
Church, rebirthing, and I felt a little hungry, so it 
must be noon. 

Everyone in that baptistry was Chinese. Everybody. 
The water glittered against my waist. The record 
keepers called the name of a passed-on person, a 
Chinese, and I felt an ancestral anxiety of my own. 
Someday I could stand here for my long silent parents. 

Waiting was over, and everything in bounds and 
oriented for me. I was more complete as a man; as 
the Tao says, my Yang maleness was whole and 
smoothed by the gentle occupations of Meimei's 
feminine Yin, as of old, a consummate and organic 
whole with her ancestors. Myself before Meimei knew 
loneliness as a deep cave. 

I yearn sometimes to know my genealogy too, and 
perhaps that was drawing mc eastward from Hawaii. 
A man needs a legitimate knowledge of his birthright, 
not .shreds. I was an orphan at five. Maybe thinking 
of all those new names and faces in Utah scared me 
a litde. 

But it was in my high school days I began to have 
friends of the Mormon Christian people, who men- 
tioned that I was the son of a Father of spirits— a son 
of heaven. I asked them to tell me more about this 



Father, and Joseph Smith's short sections in the Doc- 
trine and Covenants captivated me. A man wants a 
God to be somewhere and somebody. Ai ya, time 
flies like an arrow. I paid a tenth and stopped tea. 
And meditated a new light. My uncle told me you 
are a young one, and faithlessness is not becoming a 
man. When you exchange innocence for faith and 
choose a religion, even as you will choose a wife, so 
you will not relinquish your Chineseness; whatever 
you be, be a good one, and it was no reprimand so I 
did not fear. 

In my uncle's guest room was some writing; The 
Son Who Travels Ten Thousand Li Should Reflect 
That There Is Still a Home. I and Meimei had the 
best of one world. So that is how we married and did 
temple work afterward. And we called our joy the 
first day. 

For the fortieth name again the soft water now 
covered me, and sound changed pitch. I remembered 
my own baptism. I felt innocent and plain, as now. 
I looked up through the water at the rippling ceiling 
a moment. To have a father is good. To be a father 
is good, and to organize a family in your name. 

I felt something like an iron rod, akin to religious 
burnings, through my middle, as I came up. It would 
be good to take that feeling back to Taiwan. We will 
have our sons at home and not scattered abroad. 
That is restitution enough. A man holds the priest- 
hood. And each man begets his own race. As the 
sage kings Yao and Shun initiated the common enter- 
prise of my people, so we venerate them because that 
cause is our most primal and proprietous duty to them 
as cultural ancestors and founders. 

Going back to the island, we would gain face— a 
prerogative I now shared with Meimei and owed my 
sons-to-be. Our future lay behind us. 

We can even squeeze in a summer semester at 
Taipei, I thought. But no one ever taught me how 
to be a father to sons. So that was my most immediate 
school, and maybe in after years we could join our 
friends abroad who were neither east nor west. For 
now the temple had been a simple solution. And that 
is what I told Meimei that afternoon as we packed 
our white clothes. O 



How True! 

By Mary Colby Wilder 



Though we are many 
Miles apart, 
A prayer can bring us 
Heart to heart! 



30 



Improvement Era 




R 



egardless of how you want to accumulate 
funds of approximately $2,400.00 for a 
mission. First Security Bank can assist you. 

Three types of savings plans are available, 
together with variations or combinations to fit your 
individual needs. These include: 

5% per annum Short-Term Savings Certificate 

with interest credited to a Passbook account 
every 90 days. 

5% per annum Long-Term Savings Certificate 

with 5% interest guaranteed over a 5-year 
period even if present interest rates should 
go down. This plan yields 5.60% when 
interest is accumulated over 5 years. 

Passbook Savings, a special mission account. 
Any amount may be deposited at any time. 

Many families use a combination of plans, 



MR. & MRS. A'S PLAN 

You may be interested in the specific plan 
designed by Mr. and Mrs. A. In the early summer 
of 1968 they decided that they wanted to 
accumulate a fund so that 5 years hence $100.00 
a month could be sent to their son all the 
time he would be on a mission. 

They had $624.96 in cash at that time, so they 
put it in our 5% per annum 5- Year Savings 
Certificate. Interest is guaranteed. So the 
$624.96 will earn $175.04 interest in 5 years. 
By 1973 it will have grown to $800.00. 

To accumulate $1,800.00 more, Mr. A. decided 
to save $30.00 a month for 5 years. He instructed 
us to automatically transfer that amount each 
month from his checking account and put it in a 
Special Mission Passbook Savings Account. 

Mr. A. also told us to buy a 5% Short-Term 
Savings Certificate each time $500.00 has been 



LOOKING 
AHEAD ! 

Savings plans to finance 
Missions for Sons, Daughters, 
Grandsons, Grandaughters 



accumulated in the Passbook account. Also to 
have all the interest paid quarterly on the 90-day 
Savings Certificates credited to the 
Passbook account. 

"The way I've figured it," said Mr. A., "I'll have 
saved $2,424.96. If my son should go on a 
mission, he'll receive $100.00 a month 
— and the account will still have $579. 11 in it, 
perhaps for a post-mission trip." 

Amount saved $2,424.96 

Interest paid by Bank 554.15 

Amount paid Missionary $2,979.11 



SAVING $500 A YEAR 

Depositing $500.00 once a year each year for 
5 years will create a fund that will return to your 
missionary $100.00 a month for 24 months. 
And the 24th month's check would be for 
$778.80 - not just $100.00. 

Amount saved .$2,500.00 

Interest paid by Bank 578.80 

Amount paid Missionary $3,078.80 



PLAN FOR YOUR FAMILY 

Each family's requirements vary, but we at 
First Security Bank have the "know-how" to tailor 
a plan so that you would receive maximum 
interest. 

We hope you will come in and discuss your 
specific problem — whether your savings plan be 
long or merely for a short period of time. 



Federal regulations stipulate the maximum interest which may 
be paid by national banks. Examples shown are based 
on present maximum permissible rates. 



FIRST SECURITY BANK 



First Security Bank of Utah, National Association. First Security State Bank. 
First Security Bank of Idaho, National Association. 
First Security Bank of Rock Springs, Wyoming. 
Members Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 



September 1969 



31 



Organ virtuoso Virgil Fox 

rehearses for a concert on the Rodgers 

Custom Touring Organ. 

The Rodgers organ repre- 
sents a skillful blending of space-age 
technology with centuries-old musical 
tradition which has won the respect of 
the world's finest organists. 




But 



Let's 
Face 



Tj. 

I I Few of us live in mansions or worship in cathedrals. 

II In choosing a church organ, price must be considered 
J^ \^ along with musical capability. 

Rodgers introduces the new Specification 110, a radiantly musical and 

complete organ at an affordahle price. 

All-AGO console and pedalboard, separate Celestes on each manual, 

standard couplers, Flute chiff, and the renowned Rodgers ensemble 

are among the uncompromising features 
which distinguish the new 

Specification 110 from any 
comparably priced organ. 
A proper instrument at a 
moderate price ... a new and very 
real innovation from Rodgers. 

Write for full details. 




32 



^ JORGAN COMPANY 
1300 N. E. 25th Avenue Hillsboro, Oregon 97123 



/: 



Some 
URCGmmon 



^. .\ 




• In the centennial year of the Mormon migration, 
Vilate C. Raile wrote of the Mormon pioneers: 

"They cut desire into short lengths 

And fed it to the hungry fires of courage. 

Long after, when the flames had died, 

Molten gold gleamed in the ashes. 

They gathered it into bruised palms 

And handed it to their children 

And their children's children forever." 

In our pioneer heritage there is much of this molten 
gold, but we often cannot distinguish it from the 
ashes. Some of it is found in the uncommon aspects 
of the Mormon migration. 

The period from 1835 to 1869, when the railroads 
were joined at Promontory Summit, was a time in 
Western America when thousands of people moved to 
the Far West on horseback or with wagons. The 



Mormons were not the first of the western pioneers; 
they did not compose the vast majority of those who 
went west; and they did not pioneer the first trans - 
Missouri wagon road. But there are some aspects of 
what they did that tend to be ignored in historical 
accounts of westward expansion of the United States. 
There are at least ten unusual aspects of the Mormon 
migration. 

1. A Religiously Motivated Migration. 

The motive that led the Mormons westward was 
religion, and in this they differed from all other sizable 
contemporary migrations. Utah is the only western 
state settled by Americans in which religion was the 
primar\' motivating force for migration and in which 



Dr. T. Edgar Lyon, well-known Church historian and author, has 
taught for many years at the Institute of Religion adjacent to the 
University of Utah campus and is research historian for Nauvoo 
Restoration, incorporated. 



September 1969 



33 



it continued as such for more than a half century. Most 
people traveling to the Far West sought economic 
betterment, improved health, escape from the mo- 
notony of urban life, flight from unhappy marital or 
family situations, to run beyond the long arm of the 
law, or to give vent to a restive spirit of adventure. 
After having met pressures from hostile social groups 
and religious bigots in New York and Ohio, the Mor- 
mons migrated to Missouri. There, the same forces, 
intensified by local problems, erupted into mob vio- 
lence on two occasions and ended in the expulsion of 

"Utah is the only western state 
settled by Annericans in which 
religion was the primary 
nnotivating force for nnigration...." 



the Mormons from the state. They settled in Illinois, 
but soon the old sources of friction, augmented by 
political intrigues, economic jealousy, and startling re- 
ligious innovations, aroused antagonism toward them. 
They were presented with the alternative of aban- 
doning their city of Nauvoo and their many settlements 
in the surrounding country, or engaging in a civil 
war to maintain their property rights and their re- 
Hgious differences. The Mormon leaders announced 
their intention to seek a new home in the Far West 
rather than engage in the shedding of blood. There 
they would build their communities and be free to 
establish their religion and a government in harmony 
with their religious ideals. Mormons by the tens of 
thousands undertook the tiring westward journey to 
establish what they termed "the kingdom of God." 

2. The Economic Status of the Participants. 

A second factor that is different in the Mormon 
migration is the economic status of the participants. In 
contrast to the usual California and Oregon migrants 
of the same years, the Mormons were relatively poor, 
and many were in destitute circumstances. The 
earliest pioneers to Utah had received only a fraction 
of the value of the property that had been sold in 
Illinois and Iowa. Usually they had received only food, 
wagons, livestock, or farm products in exchange for 
their homes, farms, and shops. Their wagons, when 
loaded with the farming equipment and tools needed 
to establish houses in their new settlements, the neces- 
sary food to last them for more than a year, and 



bedding and clothing, were more than filled. There 
was little or no space for hauling furniture or luxury 
items, or even stoves, in many cases. 

In contrast, the Oregon and California immigrants 
who camped along the same roadway to the West 
carried large sums of gold and silver to establish 
themselves in their new homes. Many of their wagons, 
not being filled with such large supplies of food, which 
could be obtained when they reached the Pacific 
Coast, started their journeys with fine furniture and 
luxury items. 

After 1849 the Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company 
provided overland transportation from the Missouri 
Valley outfitting centers to Great Salt Lake City, for 
those unable to secure their own wagons and animals. 
Many of the converts in the British Isles, where wages 
were depressed, could not save enough to pay their 
passage to the Missouri Valley. Later the fund pro- 
vided complete transportation from British and con- 
tinental ports to Utah. With all of their worldly 
possessions in one or two boxes (so limited by the 
shipping companies and the Perpetual Emigrating 
Fund Company), thousands of immigrants who other- 
wise never could have reached Utah were given the 
privilege of establishing homes and owning land in 
their new Zion. 

3. Mormons Did Not Employ Professional Guides. 

During the eighteen-twenties, thirties, and forties^ 
the "mountain men" ( fur trappers and traders ) roamed 
western North America. In their quest for beaver and 
otter, they followed Indian and buffalo trails and 
became familiar with the mountains and plains of 
the West. When beaver hats were replaced by silk 
hats, the value of beaver pelts fell drastically, and 
their trappings ceased to be a highly profitable 
business. 

Many of them found a new source of income. They 
journeyed to the rendezvous points for immigrants 
going to the Far West and offered themselves as guides 
to the migrating parties. 

The immigrants, aware of the unmarked wilderness 
roads, the dangers from Indians, and the problems of 
crossing the large rivers and high mountains, gladly 
engaged the services of these knowledgeable men at 
very high prices. To have started for Oregon or 
California without a guide would have appeared 
foolhardy. 

The Mormons did an unusual thing. They lacked 
the gold and silver to employ the guides, but they 
had confidence in their leaders as men inspired by 
God. These leaders had studied every available map 



34 



Improvement Era 



-i;.?-=**^ 




1 T 




It folds easily, nests compactly, | | T-"A' 
with no nnetal-to-nnetal contact. 

It has a tubular steel frame. I 

It has the lowest possible 
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^B It is lightweight but strong. 

9a It has X-frame construction 
with double cross bracing. 

;A^... Oi It has a baked enamel finish. 

/■ It has a polypropylene 
I injection molded 
seat and back. 

Oi It resists scratching 
and cleans easily. 

9a It is contour designed 
for maximum comfort. 

lUa It has a reinforced seat. 

lla It supports 500 
pounds. 

Ma It will not 
-U tip in normal use. 



Now give us one good reason for 
not buying Samsonite's "^2200 folding chaii... 
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Contact Church Furnishings Purchasing r — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — -i 

Office 125 North Main Street I Samsonite corporation, Institutional Furniture Div., Dept. IE-99, Denver, Colo. 80217 



Salt Lake City, Utah, for special pricing | 
on all Samsonite merchandise. I 



Gentlemen: We are considering the purchase of- 



QUANTITY 



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Folding Chairs 



TYPE 



.chairs. They will be used as follows.-. 



Please rush Q Name of Nearest Distributor n Descriptive Literature 

I Your Namp __^ 



Samsonite Institutional Furniture Division 
Dept. IE-99, Denver, Colo. 80217 

September 1969 



I Your Organization or Company. 

I You r Address 

! City 



.state. 



.Zip code. 



35 



and printed record ( particularly those of Captain John 
C. Fremont). They were confident that with God's aid 
they'd "find the place which God for us prepared, 
far away, in the West." As they journeyed westward 

There is no known record of any 
other such large company of 
pioneers starting for the West, in 
which no one in the company had 
previously traversed the road" 



they made inquiry of the mountain men they met, con- 
cerning the best roads to follow. There is no known 
record of any other such large company of western 
pioneers starting for the West, in which no one in the 
company had previously traversed the road. 

4, Non-frontiersmen Were Quickly Transformed Into 
Pioneers. 

The Saints who left Nauvoo were not in the main 
rugged frontiersmen who had come from pioneering 
stock. The majority of them in their own generation 
had come either from the settled communities of re- 
finement along the Atlantic Seaboard or from the 
British Isles. They were not fifth- or sixth-generation 
pioneer stock, such as Abraham Lincoln's family. His 
ancestors had pioneered on the Atlantic seaboard, then 
above the tidewater regions, over the mountains into 
the great western valleys, into Kentucky and Ohio, 
Tennessee, Indiana, and Illinois. This contrast is 
significant. 

Relatively few of the Mormons at TJauvoo had 
grown up accustomed to dealing with livestock, farm- 
ing, building houses from the raw materials of the 
countryside. Many of the American Mormons and 
most of those from Europe had been miners, factory 
workers, shopkeepers, sailors, trained artisans, and 
businessmen. The Mormon exodus took that group, 
and under the tutelage of a relatively few who had 
grown up in pioneering situations, within a few months 
the Saints had been transformed into a people who 
handled heavily loaded wagons drawn by oxen, horses, 
and mules and traversed a variety of climatic belts 
into the arid West. 

None of these migrants were familiar with irrigation 
agriculture. All had come from areas where the rain- 
fall produced abundant crops or verdant coverage of 



the prairies. Under the leadership of men whom the 
Saints viewed as God's prophetic leaders on earth, 
they diverted the water from mountain streams and 
made the former deserts become fruitful fields. They 
became the pioneers in irrigation processes in America 
and formed the basis of irrigation law that has now 
become international in its acceptance. 

5. A Migration of Families. 

The greater part of the wagon trains that traveled 
the California and Oregon trails were composed pre- 
dominantly of men. Relatively few women and 
children accompanied them. There were some excep- 
tions, but the movement was primarily one of ad- 
venturers who did not take families with them. In 
contrast, the Mormon pioneers (with the exception of 
the first pioneer exploratory party) were families 
moving en masse to the Far West. In addition, the 
Mormon migration had a higher percentage of older 
people, who went along with their married children. 

These factors make the Mormon migration unique 
because of the greater difficulties imposed by the 
divergent groups within the companies. Women, 
children, and older people prevent a group from 
traveling as rapidly as a body of men could do. The 
usual childhood diseases, childbirth, and the infirmi- 
ties of age all caused lost days of travel. These people 
required more time to pack and unpack each day, 
to prepare meals and wash clothing. 

The presence of families required the travel com- 
panies to be larger than a group of men, in order to 
provide sufficient men to adequately guard the group 
against Indian depredations. The increased size of 
the companies created other problems, including more 
time needed to water the larger number of animals 
three or more times a day, and to sort out the hun- 
dreds of animals each morning before harnessing or 
yoking-up. 

6. The Mormon Trail Was a Two-way Road. 

The majority of pioneers heading for the West Coast 
were not concerned about building a road on which 
to return to the East, nor were they concerned about 
those who would follow after them. Once on the 
West Coast, ocean transportation would provide easier 
communication routes with the East. In contrast, the 
Mormons were conscious that a never-ending stream 
of immigrants would be following in their steps, as 
converts caught the spirit of gathering. Furthermore, 
they were aware that missionaries by the hundreds 
would be trekking back along the route, and that 



36 



Improvement Era 



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37 



wagons would be returning to the Missouri Valley to 
haul new groups of immigrants to Utah. 

When they came to streams that were fordable, 
they stopped long enough to cut down the banks to 
make the descent and ascent from the ford easier. 
They corduroyed swampy stretches of road and con- 
structed ferries on the larger riv.ers that were too 
swift or deep to ford, then stationed crews to operate 
them for oncoming parties, They constructed dugways 
to reduce the hazard of loaded wagons tipping over 



'They improved the roads, in an 
unselfish way, as a means of 
assisting a great number of people 
unrelated by blood to them...'.' 



on hillside roads. They improved the roads, in an un- 
selfish way, as a means of facilitating the movement of 
a great number of people, unrelated by blood to them, 
but tied perhaps even closer through the bonds of 
Christian love and brotherhood. 

7. TJte Magnanimous Aspect of the Mormon Migration. 

Though it is difficult to measure this intangible 
achievement in terms of material accomplishments, it 
was nonetheless a unique aspect of the Latter-day Saint 
migration. The Mormons were concerned with the 
social and economic well-being of mankind as well 
as spiritual values. When they departed from Nauvoo 
there were hundreds who possessed neither wagons 
nor draft animals nor milk cows. The members of 
the Church, in conference assembled, placed them- 
selves under a mutual assistance covenant to exert 
every resource within their power to assist those fami- 
lies without the necessary facilities to travel, and not 
to rest until all Saints who desired to go west had 
been helped on their way. 

Many converts in the British Isles lacked money to 
follow the Saints to the Great Basin. The Perpetual 
Emigrating Fund Company and a few wealthy mem- 
bers of the Church assisted thousands to reach their 
Zion in the mountains. Such assistance opened the 
way for people who otherwise would have spent their 
lives at a relatively low economic standard of living to 
become independent landowners and farmers and 
artisans. 

The annals of immigration in America can be 



searched in vain for a comparable mass of people in 
the lower economic brackets being moved so far and 
so efficiently by their co-religionists without any profit 
motive, and without a planned exploitation of them 
as a work force. 

8. The Organization of Mormon Wagon Trains. 

Nothing had welded the average emigrant to the 
Pacific Coast into a homogenous group prior to start- 
ing for the West. Most pioneers traveled to some well- 
known rendezvous point and joined others whom they 
had not previously known, to make a group large 
enough to travel in safety and to be able to hire a 
guide to conduct the train on its long journey. 

Iti contrast, the Mormons had been conditioned by 
a common religious conviction concerning the restora- 
tion of the gospel and its priesthood leadership. Brig- 
ham Young announced a revelation {D&C 136) that 
gave a plan for organizing the wagon companies. 
Under this system there was a chain of command from 
the leader of each migrating unit down to each wagon. 
The correlation of effort at each level enabled the 
Mormon companies, although composed of people who 
usually did not have outfits as good as the non- 
Mormons en route to the West, to complete their 
journey in a minimum of time, with a minimum loss 
of manpower and goods, and a higher percentage of 
success in reaching their destination. 

Mormon companies did not go part way west, then 
lose heart and return to the East. By mutual assistance, 
sharing, and sacrificing, all born of their religious 
sense of brotherhood, the Mormons maintained their 
organized groups. They did not reject their leaders 
nor split the trains into units too small for adequate 
protection. In any wagon train there are fast- and 
slow-walking animals. The Mormons with the fastest- 
walking animals did not go off and leave the others. 
The speed of the entire train was limited by the gait of 
the slowest team in the group. 

9. Respect for Life and Death. 

The journals of immigrants who traveled the Oregon 
and California trails relate that parties arriving at a 
campground often found the remains of a human body 
there. The dead person had been wrapped in a 
blanket and placed in a shallow grave, as the camp 
hurried on to its destination. Wolves had pawed away 
the earth and exhumed the remains. 

Mormon journals note many deaths en route to the 
Great Basin. But they also noted the making of coffins 
from spare lumber, wagon tailgates, or cottonwood 



38 



Improvement Era 




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halfback at Notre Dame 



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September 1969 



39 



Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 



Chance could not have done it 



As men move farther out from the magnificent 
/Aearth that God gave us, and look back upon 
/ V its awesome beauty, its movement, its pre- 
cision and proportion, upon the wondrous working 
and magnificent majesty of it all, we come with 
souls subdued to the quiet conviction of these 
simple words: "In the beginning God created the 
heaven and the earth. . . ."^ Chance could not 
have done it. "And God saw every thing that he 
had made, and, behold, it was very good."^ Well, 
man, made in the image of God, has done much 
with his marvelous God-given mind, in the dis- 
covery and use of natural law. But much as man 
has done, he has scarcely touched the surface of 
all this majesty of meaning, of purpose, of infinite 
understanding. Think a moment of the organizing 
and engineering and operation of it all— of keep- 
ing a world within a livable range of temperature; 
of air and water renewing themselves; of insect, 
animal, and bacterial balance in infinite variety. 
And the creation is evidence of a Creator, design 
is evidence of the Designer, and law is evidence 
of its Maker and Administrator— evidence sufficient 
even for the most skeptical and unbelieving. "When 
a load of bricks, dumped on a corner lot, can ar- 
range themselves into a house," wrote Bruce Bar- 
ton, "when a handful of springs and screws and 
wheels, emptied onto a desk, can gather themselves 
into a watch, then and not until then will it seem 
sensible, to some of us at least, to believe that 
all . . . [this] could have been created . . . without 
any directing intelligence at all."^ Then and only 
then will I believe that this Was done by chance 
—or without eternal plan and purpose. "Behind 
everything stands God," said Phillips Brooks. "Do 
not avoid, but seek, the great, deep, simple things 
of faith. "^ "And God saw every thing that he had 
made, and, behold, it was very good." 



'Genesis 1:1. 

^Genesis 1:31. 

■'Bruce Barton, If a Man Dies, Shall He Live Again? 

■•Phillips Brooks, The Light of the World and Other Sermons: The Seriousness of Life. 



* The Spoken Word from Temple 
Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting 
System July 13, 1969. Copyright 1969. 



logs. A deep grave was dug and the coffin low^ered; 
then cobblestones were hauled from the riverbeds 
and placed on top of the coffin as a double safeguard 
against the ravaging wolves. A piece of wood, iron, 
or stone was then prepared to mark the site and give 
the name of the interred person. 

There are journal accounts of non-Mormon migrants 
deserting a man and his family on the trail so they 
would not lose a day waiting for the delivery of a 
child. Indians sometimes fell upon such a deserted 
family and slaughtered them before they could over- 
take the ongoing party. 

The Mormon people placed great value on human 
life, and welcomed the newly born with rejoicing. 
They were not unwilling to remain in camp to wait 
while the midwife effected a deliverv. The mother 

r' 

was relieved of the anxiety of being deserted while 
enduring childbirth under most difficult conditions. 

10. The Mormon Migration Was the Movement of a 
Communitij. 

The Mormon migration to the Great Basin in the 
early years was essentially the migration of the city 
of Nauvoo-its people, its crafts, and its religious con- 
victions. The migrants loaded into their wagons, in 
addition to tools, food, clothing, books, and cooking 
equipment, the historical and religious records of 
the Church. They took with them the minutes of the 
city council and the records of the municipal court. 
They also took the intangible spirit of the town wdth 
them. Although this was not tangible, it was no less 
real to them than books and tools and food. 

John Taylor declared in the last issue of the Nauvoo 
Neiglibor that the spirit which had built Nauvoo in 
seven years could build a better city and a better 
temple than had been accomplished at Nauvoo. These 
things the people did at the end of their western trail. 
In the fall of 1847, when Salt Lake City was two 
months old, its inhabitants numbered nearly two thou- 
sand. A year later, after the three companies of 1848 
had arrived, the city had nearly five thousand inhabi- 
tants. The shops and industries of Nauvoo were 
functioning, and the Nauvoo bands played as they 
had done before starting westward. The community- 
was the largest between the Missouri River and the 
West Coast. It was the only supply station in more 
than two thousand miles where a true city could be 
found. Great Salt Lake City was transplanted Nauvoo 
reborn. 

Truly Mormon pioneers had cut desire into short 
lengths and fed it to the hungry fires of courage, where 
we might still find molten gold in the ashes. O 



40 



Improvement Era 



Theologieal 
llliteraies 



By Elder Marion I). Hanks 



n a recent conversation with a 
choice college girl, I listened to 
two statements that may reflect 
the feelings of many of her peers who have similar 
problems for similar reasons and who, like her, 
seem content to understand where the solutions 
are without doing anything to bring them about. 

She called herself a "theological illiterate," 
shortly thereafter noting that she has never read 
through any of the so-called standard works nor 
any basic exposition of gospel principles. She had 
not read any version of Church history, lengthy 
or abbreviated. 

I recalled for her a statement made by Dr. John 
A. Widtsoe, learned apostle and university presi- 
dent, in his great autobiography, hi a Sunlit 
Land. Dr. Widtsoe wrote: 



''Since my boyhood I had known the restored 
gospel to be true. In my college days I had sub- 
jected it to every test known to me. Throughout 
my life it had made the days joyous. Doubt had 
fled. I possessed the Truth and understood, 
measurably, the pure and simple gospel of Jesus 
Christ. 

"I had studied the gospel as carefully as any 
science. The literature of the Church I had ac- 
quired and read. During my spare time, day by 
day, I had increased my gospel learning. And I 
had put the gospel truth to work in daily life, and 
had never found it wanting. 

"The claims of Joseph Smith the Prophet had 
been examined and weighed. No scientific claim 
had received a more thorough analysis. Every- 
where the divine mission of the latter-day prophet 
was confirmed. 

"The restored Church had been compared with 
other churches. Doctrine for doctrine, principle 
for principle, organization for organization, the 
churches had been placed side by side. Compared] 
with the churches of the world, the Church ofj 
Jesus Christ, as restored through Joseph Smith, 
stood like a field of ripening grain by the side of 
scattering stalks. 

"The stream of Church history since Jesus' day 
was muddy. The churches could not confirm the 
descent of their authority. The facts in recorded 
history proved the reality of the apostasy from 
the primitive faith, as taught by Jesus, the Christ. 
The restored Church alone possessed the priest- 
hood of Almighty God." (Pp. 158-59.) 
No one knows anything about his homeland 
simply because he was born a citizen thereof. 
He must learn. No one knows anything about 
Christ's work simply by being born a member of 
the Church, and often he knows little about it 
after years of unmotivated exposure in meetings 
or classes. He must learn. And learning involves 
self-investment and effort. The gospel should be 
studied "as carefully as any science." The "litera- 
ture of the Church" must be "acquired and read." 
Our learning should be increased in our spare 
time "day by day." Then as we put the gospel 
truth to work in daily life, we will never find it 
wanting. We will be literate in the most important 
field of knowledge in the universe, knowledge for 
lack of which men and nations perish, in the light 
of which men and nations may be saved. O 



42 



Era of Youth 




friend of ours tells the story 
of his not-so-glorious career as 
a high school quarterback. Al- 
though he made the team, the 
truth was soon evident, and mid- 
season found him the fourth of 
four at that position. By season's 
end, he had given up. During the 
final game he pulled off his shoes, 
wrapped himself in a blanket, and 
settled down to watch his buddies 
perform. 

Then it came. 

"Hey, you! Get in there and 
move the ball!" 

The sound almost stunted his 
growth. What should he do? His 
first impulse was to say "Wait, 
coach, while I put on my shoes." 
The next two possibilities were 
either to pretend he didn't hear 
or to lapse into a coma. He did 
the only manly thing. Strapping on 
his helmet as he ran, he made 
straight for the huddle, his 
stockinged feet conspicuously evi- 
dent. Amid unbelieving team- 
mates he called a play. But the 
shock of his first game was a 
little disconcerting, and as he 
took the snap from center, it 
dawned on him that he had for- 
gotten which play he called. As 
his defense moved to the right, 
he nimbly went left and met the 
world of opposition head on and 

was swallowed up in the snarl of 
opposing linemen. 

Though the story goes on to 
something of a happy ending, my 
friend takes the occasion to teach 



what has become a great lesson 
to me. He said, "No one expected 
me to make a touchdown. Even 
running the wrong way was un- 
derstandable. But there was no 
excuse for a quarterback without 
shoes!" 

In one of the revelations con- 
tained in the Doctrine and Cove- 
nants, Oliver Cowdery was told 
that he was to be granted the gift 
of translation. (D&C 6:25.) 

But here, in a far more serious 
contest, was another quarterback 
without shoes. He wasn't as ready 
as he had once been. His belief 
in himself and his cause had fal- 
tered, and though he cried, "Wait 
while I get ready!" he learned that 
eternal work can seldom wait. To 



Oliver the Lord had to reply, 
"Because you did not continue as 
you commenced ... I have taken 
away this privilege. . . . You 
feared, and the time is past, and 
it is not expedient now." (See 
D&C 9:5, 11.) The opportunity 
of a lifetime had not been seized 
during the lifetime of the oppor- 
tunity, and it was gone forever. 

Young people of the Church, 
there is a great growth ahead for 
you. There is permanent, peace- 
ful joy to be felt. Be faithful. Be 
ready. Believe in the battle, and 
be willing to serve. To all who 
will hear, the angel is saying what 
he said long ago to Peter: "Arise 
. . . bind on thy sandals . . . 
follow me." (See Acts 12:7-8.) o 





ow much would you give 
for a guarantee of success in 
your college studies? What 
would it be worth to you if you 
knew of a way to ensure not only 
a good grade and graduation, but 
a real education as well? There 
is such a way, though you won't 
find it in lesson outlines, study 
guides, or cram sessions. The 
way is through that which all of 
us share in common — the influ- 
ence of the gospel of Jesus 
Christ. Through righteous ap- 
plication of four gospel princi- 
ples, you can practically ensure 
yourself of success in your col- 
lege work. 

1. The Word of Wisdom: If 
you've read the 89th section of 
the Doctrine and Covenants 
lately, you should know that one 
of the blessings promised for ad- 
herence to the Word of Wisdom 
is "wisdom and great treasures 
of knowledge, even hidden 
treasures." How long has it been 
since you applied that promise 
to your geography class, or 
physics, or EngHsh? Do you 
know that there are no limits to 
the amount of knowledge the 
Lord will help us gain if we obey 
the law set down to obtain it? 

If you live the Word of Wis- 
dom, your body will be more 

pure and your mind more clear 
to receive earthly as well as 
heavenly knowledge. On the other 
hand, how can you pretend to 
summon your mind to intense 
application . when your body is 
polluted and desecrated ? Former 
Harvard President Charles Eliot 
once told a group of incoming 
freshmen, "Remember, students, 
tobacco destroys the mind, and 
you have none to spare!" It has 
been shown that the capacity for 
scholarly work differs signifi- 
cantly between smoking and non- 
smoking groups of students. 



46 




And have you ever heard of first tested the promise of James 

alcoholic indulgence for intellec- to seek spiritual light, he con- 

tual stimulation, let alone the tinned to use this method of faith 

use of drugs to develop an aca- and prayer throughout his life 

demic discipline? If you really to gain secular as well as spir- 

beheve the Lord, why not take itual knowledge, 
him at his word and obey the 3. The Holy Spirit: We are 

law to reap the blessing prom- told in the 46th section of the 



ised? Living the Word of Wis- 
dom — in its positive parts as 
well as in avoiding substances 
that can prove harmful to your 
body — can become one of the 
greatest study aids you've ever 
used. 

2. Faith and Prayers: How 
long has it been since you've 
prayed for help in your class- 
work? When you did, did you 
ihave faith that God would really 



Doctrine and Covenants to seek 
earnestly the "best gifts" of the 
Spirit. One of these gifts is the 
word of wisdom; another is the 
word of knowledge, "that all may 
be taught to be wise and to have 
knowledge." Now, if you live 
worthily enough to receive an 
increasing fullness of the gospel, 
these gifts will come to you 
through the influence of the 



purpose of our salvation and 
exaltation. If you obey that com- 
mandment, you'll work and study 
to educate yourself in those areas 
the Lord mentioned — and I chal- 
lenge you to find one area of 
academic learning that wasn't 
included. 

Education and exaltation in 
the gospel are really synony- 
mous ; both are part of an eternal 
process of learning. President 
Hugh B. Brown once said, "Per- 
haps not but by searching, man 
may become acquainted with his 
universe; by intelligent search- 
ing, gaining knowledge, becom- 
ing educated, man may come to 
understand and appreciate, not 



Holy Spirit, that same Spirit of only his immediate surroundings, 



help you, or did you say it and which Jesus spoke when he said, but by constantly pushing back 




then forget it ? When Jesus said, 
"What things soever ye desire, 
when ye pray, believe that ye 
receive them, and ye shall have 
them" (Mark 11:24), he didn't 
\ limit this blessing to healing 
Sfrom bodily illness or gaining a 
testimony of the gospel. 

". . . all things are possible 
to him that believeth." (Mark 
9:23.) Faith in God, faith in 
yourself as a child of God, faith 
in your ability to learn, and faith 
in his helping you are all essen- 
tial to human understanding. 
You might make some progress 
on your own, but without the 
moral principle and spiritual 
power that faith produces, per- 
manent progress is impossible. 
Without faith in a God of laws 
and order and purpose, how could 
you even attempt to account for 
the great phenomena of nature ? 
Why then don't you apply the 
test and "ask of God"? 



"He shall teach you all things, his horizons in all directions he 
and bring all things to your re- will discover ever more compel- 
membrance." This means just ling evidence of plan, design, and 
what he said, that the Holy purpose — hence a planner, a de- 
Spirit will act as a study aid for signer, a mind — God." 



us even in our school work (re- 
member, Jesus said all things) 
if we merit his influence and 
companionship. 

4. Eternal Progression: If 
you really believe in eternal 



This, then, is the ultimate pur- 
pose of a college education and 
should become the basic motiva- 
tion for your studying. If you 
learn for the sake of the gospel, 
the gospel will help you learn. It 



progression, you can't help but . is just that simple. Faith and 

succeed in college. The gospel prayer, the Word of Wisdom, the 

plan gives purpose to learning, philosophy and goal of eternal, 

meaning to progress, and under- progression, and the influence of 



standing to every academic 
discipline. The Lord has express- 
ly commanded us to learn not 
only spiritual things, but "things 
both in heaven and in the earth, 
and under the earth ; things 
which have been, things which 
are, things which must shortly 
come to pass; things which are 
at home, things which are 
abroad ; the wars and the per- 



But remember, you must "ask plexities of the nations, and the 

in faith, nothing wavering." And judgments which are on the 

remember also — if you need con- land ; and a knowledge also of 

vincing proof of these study aids countries and of kingdoms" 

—that although Joseph Smith (D&C 88:79)— all for the 



the Holy Spirit can become your 
most valued and trusted study 
aids. Together with diligent 
study habits, they can practically 
guarantee success in your class- 
work. I've tried it along with 
many others, and it works ! 
Here's an invitation for you to 
do the same. 

James Moss is a former stu- 
dentbody president at the Uni- 
versity of Utah and a recent 
graduate in law from Stanford 
University. 



September 1969 



47 



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Docs Gigarette 



I I 



By Dr. Thomas A. Clawson, Jr. 






49 



D 



you like to travel? Travel- 
ing is something near and dear 
to me. Since I reached my teens 
I have had a choice of two trips : 
one — an LSD trip, popping pills, 
smoking pot, and mainlining 
right down the road of degrada- 
tion into the jaws of death, into 
the mouth of hell; the other — 
an LDS trip, down the glorious 
road of mortality and into the 
kingdom of God. On this trip I 
can take friends of my own 
choosing. Will you be my friend 
and join me on my LDS trip? 
If the answer is yes, then you 
will need to make the same 
preparations I must make. You 
will find out why I made this 




choice. Let's take this step by 
step. 

Hov/ are we going to travel? 
We need a vehicle with five per- 
fect wheels — four to roll on and 
one to steer us. Our four perfect 
wheels are sacrament meeting, 
Sunday School, MIA, and semi- 
nary; our steering wheel, the 
four standard works of the 
Church. Once we get behind the 
wheel of this vehicle and hold 
on, there are no breakdowns and 
no detours. 

The mode of travel for the 
other trip? A long, bumpy slide. 

Looks like fun? Well, look 
closely — it is lubricated with 
slime to make it easy to go down. 
Let's pack all our necessities 
for our LDS trip. I'll tell you 
what I'm taking. I need faith. 
Lots of it. Knowledge — knowl- 
edge of the gospel and the best 
education I can obtain. Love — 
love for my Heavenly Father, 
love for his gospel, love for my 
fellowman, love for my home 
and family, love for my country. 
I'll take honesty, because I must 
be honest with myself and know 
this is the direction I want to go. 
I need strength and will power, 
vast amounts of it, so I'll pray 



lUcar and 
Dear lo Me 




By Carolyn Roe 



constantly to keep a good supply 
on hand. I need humility, be- 
cause in humility we recognize 
the power and glory of the Lord 
in all things, and without his 
help we are as nothing. 

For the other trip you don't 
pack much ; you toss out — re- 
spect, dignity, strength, health, 
and eventually your brain power 
and backbone. A needle, weed, 
or capsule becomes your soul and 
your governor, and somewhere 
you find you have tossed out the 
real you. 

Now, we have to finance this 
trip. How are we going to do 
it? I have "ways and means." 
They include : 



Ten Com- 



6. 

7. 



8. 



1. Faith 

2. Repentance 

3. Baptism 

4. Obeying the 
mandments 

5. Living the Word of Wis- 
dom 
Tithing 

Strong testimony, know- 
ing that God lives and that 
my church is true 
A temple marriage, to a 
man I love and respect; to 
a man who holds the 
priesthood, which I honor ; 
to know our children will 
be ours forever ; to experi- 
ence the greatest honor 
possible to earthly parents. 

The other trip? The price was 
too high — I couldn't afford it. 
Why spend yourself to get no- 
where fast? 

It is time to talk about where 
we are going. I want to go to 



the celestial kingdom. I want to 

be with my Heavenly Father and 

to meet my earthly family there, 

to live in joy and happiness 

forever. Here and now, I have 

the freedom to accept either 

invitation — one voice saying, 

Hey, baby, be free, turn on, 

tune in." Is tliat being free? 

Yes, in a way that wild animals 

are free. But I'm not an animal. 

I'm a child of God, and that 

knowledge really makes me free. 

I hear the other voice, the 

voice of the Shepherd, one who 

loved me enough to die for me, 

saying, "Follow me; I am the 

way." I know this choice of mnne 

will be dear to the heart of the 

Shepherd, and it is dear to the 

heart of me. O 







ome on . . . enough of that daydream- 
ing. Be done with mere hoping your 
dreams will come true. Say so long 
to wasted moments and the lazy life. 
Get up and at it and start writing! 

The annual Era of Youth Writing Contest is 
underway, and your entry might be a lucky 
winner. At best, you can win one of the fabulous 
scholarships. You might win a cash award or 
an Era subscription or publication in a forth- 
coming issue of the Era of Youth. Or . . . there 
is the proverbial loser's satisfaction in trying: 
just putting your own creative ideas down on 
paper is something! 

This year the contest is slightly different. In 
addition to the traditional short story and 
poetry categories, we're giving you a new divi- 
sion — feature articles. These are the kinds of 

interesting, readable items you see featured in 
magazines. You may want to write about "How 
to Flip a Crepe Suzette" or "Ten Reasons Why 
It Pays to Be Honest," or how to identify snails, 
musical instruments, or a likely v/onderful wife! 
This is a contest in which young writers write 
for young readers. That is a winning tip. Study 
the back issues of the Era of Youth to see what 
kinds of features we publish. That's a winning 
tip, too. 

Come on, get up and at it! Write! Join the 
throngs from all over the world and enter the 
1970 Era of Youth Anniversary Contest. 

CONTEST RULES 

1. Contest is open to anyone who is a senior in 
high school or under 25 years of age. 2. Winner 
must be in a position to accept the college schol- 
arship for the fall of 1970. 3. A pen name must 
be used on each entry. 4. Each entry must 
have a sealed envelope attached, with the 
author's real name, pen name, age, address, a 
photograph, and a statement that this is your 
own original work. 5. Specify which college 
contest you want to compete in. (Continental 
U.S. residents are not eligible for the Church 
College of Hawaii scholarships but may compete 
for scholarships to either Brigham Young Uni- 
versity at Provo, Utah, or Ricks College in Rex- 
burg, Idaho.) 6. Your entry cannot be returned. 
7. You may submit as many entries as you 
ike, but each must have its own envelope of 
information (see rules 3 and 4). 8. DEADLINE: 
midnight, December 31, 1969! 9. Entries must 
be mailed to Era of Youth Writing Contest, 79 
South State Street, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111. 



53 



Despite a bicycle accident 
that left her with two badly 
sprained ankles, Irene Allred 
of the Smithfield (Utah) Third 
Ward completed all 80 Bee- 
hive honor badges. Not being 
able to walk without crutches, 
Irene had to finish the de- 
sign on a bedsheet by working 
with it on the floor! 





At Oakmont High School 
in California, Garry Thomas 
Eagles played the saxaphone 
in the concert, stage, and 
pep bands. His talent in 
speech earned him the Lion's 
Club speech contest for two 
years, and his leadership abil- 
ity earned him the American 
Legion's leadership award. He 
serves as a stake missionary 
and as Sunday School secre- 
tary, and is looking forward 
to attending Brigham Young 
University and serving on a 
mission. 



Harold Davis received a 
trophy and a $3,500 scholar- 
ship from Chevrolet when he 
placed fourth in the All-Amer- 
can Soap Box Derby in Akron, 
Ohio, Harold created quite a 
sensation with his "lay-down" 
car. He had to worm into a 
long, very narrow hole in order 
to get into it! Twelve-year- 
old Harold is a Boy Scout and 
a deacon from Midland, Texas. 




54 




Serving as president of the 
Idaho Association of Student 
Councils, governor of Gem 
Boy's State, a delegate to 
Boy's Nation, a representative 
to the Williamsburg Student 
Burgess in Virginia, and as 
high school studentbody presi- 
dent didn't stop Neil Anderson 
of North Pocatelio (Idaho) 
Seventh Ward from participat- 
ing in church programs. He 
also served as fireside and 
seminary president and was 
active in church athletics. 



Bruce Robertson and Jon 
Moser are among seventeen 
LDS students out of the 700 
attending iVIoscow High School 
in Idaho. Bruce serves as 
studentbody president, is a 
three-year letterman in tennis, 
leads his own band ■ Jon is 
senior class president, lieu- 
tenant governor of Gem Boys' 
State, a three-year letterman 
in basketball and football, and 
seminary president, and has 
received his Duty to God 
award. 



Rayola Hammer of Idaho 
Falls, Idaho, manages to keep 
her days full of worthwhile 
activities. While attending 
Ricks College and earning her 
degree in domestic science, 
Rayola finds time to be a 
nurse's aid at the Idaho Falls 
LDS Hospital. She has also 
earned her YWMIA gold medal- 
lion and has represented 
Bonneville High School at 
Girls' State. 





55 



The Presiding Bishop 
Talks to Youth About: 



fc^\ 




By Bishop John H. Vandenberg 



• In the animal world there is no 
such thing as lasting family life. 
The young are cared for, very 
often, by the mother alone. And 
in the animal kingdom the young 
are usually with their mother or 
parents for only a brief period — 
just enough time to learn a 
method of survival. 

For the human being, however, 
there is lasting family life. And 
even though a child is more intelli- 
gent than an animal from the very 
beginning, the period of parental 
tutelage extends many years. The 
reasons for this extended period 
of learning are obvious: a child 
must learn much more than just 
the basics of survival. 

A young man's family can be 
the greatest "university" — even 
in an eternal sense — that he could 
ever attend. Yet, there are many 



youths in the world today who are 
not taking advantage of the train- 
ing that a home offers. The pri- 
mary reason for this is that some 
young people are failing to obey 
the parents to whom the Lord has 
entrusted them. The apostle Paul, 
in speaking of the last days, 
pointed to this problem. He wrote: 

"For men shall be lovers of their 
own selves, covetous, boasters, 
proud, blasphemers, disobedient 
to parents, unthankful, unholy." 
(2 Tim. 3:2.) 

There are many important les- 
sons of life that young men and 
women learn most effectively in 
the home. One such lesson is obe- 
dience — obedience to righteous 
principles. 

A colt may be the very picture 
of beauty and youthful exuber- 
ance; yet, for all its fun and frolic, 



it will not have any useful purpose 
until it learns to obey. So it is with 
youth — until they learn to obey, 
they will find frustration and hope- 
lessness at every turn. 

Paul said that the Savior, too, 
learned obedience. Paul wrote: 

"Though he were a Son, yet 
learned he obedience by the 
things which he suffered; 

"And being made perfect, he 
became the author of eternal sal- 
vation unto -all them that obey 
him." (Heb. 5:8-9.) 

A young man who disregards 
the requests and counsel of his 
parents is cheating himself of a 
great opportunity to learn how to 
obey. The blessings that come 
with obedience to parents are not 
new; they are eternal. One reason 
why Nephi, the prophet of ancient 
America, became such a great 



56 



Improvement Era 



leader and such a powerful servant 
of God was because he learned to 
willingly obey his father. This is 
illustrated beautifully in these 
words of Nephi's father, Lehi: 

"Wherefore, the Lord hath com- 
manded me that thou and thy 
brothers should go unto the house 
of Laban, and seek the records, 
and bring them down hither into 
the wilderness. 

"And now, behold thy brothers 
murmur, saying it is a hard thing 
which I have required of them; but 
behold I have not required it of 
them, but it is a commandment of 
the Lord. 

"Therefore go, my son, and 
thou shall be favored of the Lord, 
because thou hast not murmured. 

"And it came to pass that I, 
Nephi, said unto my father: I will 
go and do the things which the 
Lord hath commanded, for I know 
that the Lord giveth no command- 
ments unto the children of men, 
save he shall prepare a way for 
them that they may accomplish 
the thing which he commandeth 
them." (1 Ne. 3:4-7.) 

Another lesson of life that 
youth can learn in the home is the 
lesson of gratitude. Our present 
society is one that caters to, and 
in some cases venerates, youth. 
Yet, the responsibility of youth to 
their parents is the same as it was 
anciently. The Lord has said; 
"Honour thy father and thy 
mother. . . ." (Exod. 20:12.) 

Nothing injures the heart of a 
parent more than an ungrateful 
child. When unthankfulness shows 
itself in the thoughts or actions of 
a young man or young woman, it 
indicates that maturity is still in 
the distant future. Gratitude is a 
mark of a real gentleman or lady. 

Benjamin Franklin expressed 
his thoughts on gratitude in the 
following words: 

"For my own part, when I am 
employed in serving others, I do 
not look upon myself as conferring 



September 1969 



favors but as paying debts. In my 
travels and since my settlement I 
have received much kindness from 
men and numberless mercies from 
God. Those kindnesses from men 
I can therefore only return to their 
fellow men; and I can only show 
my gratitude for these mercies 
from God by my readiness to help 
my brethren. For I do not think 
that thanks and compliments, 
though repeated weekly, can dis- 
charge our real obligations to each 
other, and much less those to our 
Creator." ("Franklin's Testimony," 
The Tj^easury of the Christian 
Faith, p. 292.) 

Another of the many lessons 
that a home offers is the oppor- 
tunity to learn the value of true 
labor and assuming responsibility. 
Christ labored in Joseph's carpen- 
try shop; David herded and cared 
for his father's sheep; Abraham 
Lincoln split rails; and Joseph 
Smith worked on his father's farm. 

The opportunities to assume 
responsibilities in the home are 
not as obvious as they once were, 
but there are still lawns to mow, 
yards to care for, beds to make, 
dishes to wash, and floors to 
sweep. The mature young person 
will realize that these tasks are op- 
portunities to learn valuable les- 
sons and are not just menial jobs. 

The home presents many oppor- 
tunities for youth to learn lessons 
they need to learn in order to 
equip themselves for the chal- 
lenges of life. In most cases there 
is a direct relationship between 
how well these lessons are learned 
and how successful one's future 
will be. 

Unlike the animal world, the 
youth of today have parents who 
can teach them more than survival 
and who can provide them with 
some of the greatest lessons of 
life. But the responsibility to learn 
these lessons rests heavily with 
each young man and young 
woman. o 




^ Good Housekeeping- 

?^ GUA«»NIE!S ^jjf- 

*'*rtr 08 REFUND 10';''*'^ 



It's yours, when your group raises 
funds with the best seller — Benson's 
Sliced Old Home Fruit Cake. There 
are three main ingredients. Quality, a 
cake so good it sells itself. Easy sell- 
ing, Benson's exclusive free sample 
slices, which give your customers that 
irresistible taste. High profit, as much 
as $1.10 per sale (3-pound cake). 
Bonus plan, too! Try the delicious 
taste of success yourself. Return the 
coupon today for a program brochure 
and a generous sample fruit cake. 

4 OUT OF 5 FAMILIES WILL SERVE FRUIT 
CAKE THIS FALL. MAKE IT BENSON'S AND 
BENEFIT YOUR GROUP'S GOOD CAUSE. 



Benson's sw 

oiii iiomc' Jruit Cakf 



Benson's Old Home Fruit Cake 

245 N. Thomas Street 

P. 0. Box 1432 P3 

Athens, Georgia 30601 

Please rush program brochure and generous 

sample fruit cake. Free! No obligation. 

NAME. 

ADDRESS — 

CITY 

ZIP CODE 



_STATE_ 

_PHONE_ 



ORGANIZATION. 



_N0. MEMBERS^ 



POSITION IN ORGANIZATION . 

(We can honor only U.S. inquiries that list 
organization names, since we sell only through 
civic, church, community and school groups.) 



57 



Advertisement 

SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT TO READERS OF TnG ImprOVeitlGilt mW€M 

Non-Group Enrollment Now Open 

For folks who don't drink - you can receive as much as 

$10,000.00 extra tax free cash 

Act now -your Enrollment Form must be mailed by 
Midnight Saturday, October 25, 1969, or it cannot be accepted 




If you say, "No thank you!" to alcoholic 
beverages, then here is good news for you. 
That's right. ..if you don't drink you can 
now enioll-at a very substantial reduction 
in premium-m the Community Extra 
Income Health and Accident Plan which 
provides $100.00-a-week tax free income 
for you, plus special benefits for your 
family. Your benefits start the very first day 
you enter the hospital. 

Regardless of your age, your occupation or 
the size of your family, your first month's 
coverage costs only $1. and your benefits 
start immediately! 

Your Protection Plus Agency of Salt Lake 
City has been able to make special 
arrangements with Community Life 
Insurance Company to issue their famous 
Extra Income Health & Accident Plan to 
Total Abstainers with a ten per- 
ce«f--IO%--reduction in premiums! 

We know that people who don't drink are 

better "risks" they have fewer 

accidents. ...they go into the hospital less 
often. ...so why should you have to pay full 
premium?.. .Or pay as much as the person 
who has an automobile accident because he 
was driving while drunk?... Well now, thanks 
to Protection Plus and Community Life, 
you don't have to! If you don't drink, and 
you enroll during this special non-group 
enrollment period, you will save 10% on 
your premiums. Not just for a week, or a 
month, or a year, but for the full lifetime of 
your policy! This alone means extra dollars 
in your pocket over what you would have to 
pay elsewhere. PLUS.... 

You and your entire family get your first 
month for only $1. 



To encourage you to enroll during the open 
enroUmertt period, to encourage you to put 
this needed protection in force, and to 
enable you to review your own policy, in 
your own home with your own trusted 
advisor-your accountant, your lawyer, your 
pastor or even your insurance man, who has 
your best interests at heart even though he 
represents another insurance company-we 
give you your first month's protection for 
only $1, with a full, unconditional, 
money-back guarantee! But you must act 
now, because this unusual opportunity is for 
a hmited time-only during the special 
non-group enrollment period. 



PAYS you up to $10,000.00 CASH for each 
accident or illness, starting with your very 
first day in the hospital, at the rate of 
$100.00 a week....IN ADDITION to other 

insurance or Medicare. 

PAYS you up to $7,500.00 CASH for your 
spouse (if insured) for each accident or 
illness, starting with the very first day in the 
hospital, at the rate of $75.00 a week. 

PAYS you up to $5,000.00 CASH for your 
eligible dependent children (if insured) for 
each accident or illness-including the 
common childhood diseases-starting with 
the very first day in the hospital, at the rate 
of $50.00 a week. 

THE EXTRA INCOME PLAN PAYS 

YOU THESE "NO AGE LIMIT" 

TAX-FREE CASH BENEFITS 

PAYS in addition to aU other coverage you 
have, including Medicare. 



PAYS all cash direct to you. 
doctor or hospital. 



.not to the 



PAYS and pays and pays! There is no Umit 
to the number of times you may use your 
plan. 

REMEMBER....NO age limit....NO medical 
examination required. ...NO salesman wiU 
call.. ..NO "investigations." 



MONTHLY PREMIUMS AFTER 
FIRST MONTH'S PREMIUM 

A. UNDER AGE 65 

FULL FAMILY PLAN 

(Husband, Wife & Child or Children) 



ONE PARENT PLAN 

(One Parent and Child or Children 

HUSBAND-WIFE PLAN 

INDIVIDUAL PLAN 

B. AGE 65 or OVER 



8.95 

7.15 
7.15 
4.05 



If Principal Insured is 65 or over on 
effective date, add $2.70 to above 
applicable premium. If both husband and 
wife are 65 or over, add $4.90 to above 
applicable rate. 



NOTE: The regular Monthly Premium 
shown here (for your age at time of 
enrollment) is the same low premium you 
will continue to pay. It will not 
automatically increase when you or your 
spouse reach 65. 



YOUR QUESTIONS ANSWERED 

Q. What do I need to do to qualify? 

A. Just complete and mail your Enrollment 

Form before the DeadUne Date. It's that 

easy! 

Q. What is the Extra Income Health & 
Accident Plan? 

A. It's a low cost hospital income plan. 

Q. What is my discount? 

A. Your discount is ten per-cent (10%). 

Q. What must I do to get my discount? 
A. You must be a total abstainer from 
alcoholic beverages, and you must enroll 
during the non-group emoUment period. 

Q. WTiy do I need this extra protection if I 
already have insurance? 

A. In the face of soaring hospital costs, 
your present insurance is probably 
inadquate. In addition you will still need 
cash at your fingertips for those hidden 
"extras" that always appear when injury or 
sickness strikes. 

Q. When do my hospital benefits begin? 
A. On the very first day you go to the 
hospital. 

Q. How much will it pay me when I am 
hospitalized? 

A. $100.00 a week up to as many as 100 
weeks for any one injury or sickness. Plus, 
for your spouse, $75.00 weekly up to as 
many as 100 weeks for any one injury or 
sickness. 

Q. Will this Plan pay in addition to my 
other insurance? 

A. Absolutely! We pay-in TAX-FREE 
CASH-whether you are insured in a group, 
individually, or even under Medicare, 
Actually, our Plan goes hand-in-hand vwth 
Medicare. We'll pay even if you are covered 
by Workmen's Compensation! 



58 



Improvement Era 



Now. . . for people of all ages and families of all sizes 



$100.00-A-Week when you are hospitalized 

$ 75.00-A-Week when your spouse is hospitahzed 

$ 50.00-A-Week when your children are hospitalized 



choose the 

plan below that 

suits you best 



Only $1 enrolls your entire family for the first month 



Q. Can I enroll even if I am 65 or over? 

A. Certainly. Everyone is welcome-at any 
age, providing you have not been refused 
any hospital, health or life insurance. 

Q. What benefits do my eligible, dependent 
children get? 

A. If you choose a Family Plan, your 
dependent, eligible children, ages 3 months 
to 19 years, would receive 50% of all the cash 
benefits of the basic Plan and 100% of all its 
other benefits and features. 



Q, May I add future dependent children to 
my policy after it is in force? 

A. Yes, indeed, if you have the Family 
Plan. Just notify us and they wUl be added 
without evidence of insurability and 
without any additional charge. 

Q. How can you offer so many benefits for 
so little premium? 

A. When we enroll a large number of people 
at the same time, our processing and 
administrative costs are much less. We deal 
directly with you. We don't pay salesmen's 



commissions or charge special membership 
fees. All these savings come back to you in 
the form of low, low rates! 

Q. Can I cancel my policy? 
A. Of course you can! 

Q. Will you cancel my policy if I have too 
many claims? 

A. No. We guarantee never to cancel your 
policy because of too many claims, or 
iDecause of advanced age. We also guarantee 
that we will never refuse to renew your 
policy unless the premium has not been paid 
before the end of the grace period or unless 
renewal has been declined on all poUcies of 
this type in your entire state. 

Q. Will my rates be raised because 1 grow 
older? 

A, Never. Regardless of how long you keep 
your poUcy or how -old you grow, your rate 
wiU still be based on your age when you 
were first issued your policy. We guarantee 
never to adjust this rate unless we adjust 
rates on all policies of this type in your 
entire state. 



Q. Is anything excluded from coverage? 

A. Just these few reasonable exceptions: 
War, mental disorders, pregnancy. 

Q. What about an illness 1 may have had 

before my emollment and which may come 

back? 

A. After your policy has been in force for 

just 24 months you will be fully covered for 

such illness. This is another quality feature 

of this unique Plan. 

Q. Who's covered by this special $1.00 
rate? 

A. You and all eligible family members. 

Q. Is it really important that I join now? 
A. Yes, it's very important because accident 
or sickness strikes without warning-and you 
will not be covered until your Policy is in 
force. Remember, you absolutely must 
enroll by the deadline date-but it's better to 
enroll right away, for the sooner you apply 
the sooner we will cover you. You have 
nothing to lose if you change your mind. 
Return your poUcy within 15 days for a 
prompt refund of your money. 



TO QUALIFY DURING THIS NON-GROUP ENROLLMENT PERIOD, 
YOU MUST MAIL YOUR COMPLETED APPLICATION BEFORE MIDNIGHT SATURDAY, OCT. 25, 1969 
SEND IT TO: PROTECTrON PLUS AGENCY, 150 East Seventh South Street, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 
BE SURE TO ENCLOSE $1 WITH YOUR ENROLLMENT FORM 



APPLICATION TO COMMUNITY LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, PORTLAND, ME. 
For The Extra Income Health & Accident Plan-CH 36 -A 



NAME (Please Print) 



ADDRESS. 
CITY 



STATE 



ZIP 



OCCUPATION. 



.DATE OF BIRTH 



AGE. 



1 also hereby apply for coverage for the members of my family listed below(DO NOT INCLUDE NAME THAT APPEARS ABOVE) 



NAME (Please Print) 



RELATIONSHIP SEX DATE OF BIRTH AGE 



Neither I nor any person listed above uses alcoholic beverages; nor has been refused any health, hospital, or life insurance. I hereby apply 
for the Extra Income Health & Accident Plan. I understand that I, and any person listed above, will be covered under this Policy for any 
injury or sickness I (we) had before the Effective Date of the Policy after it has been if force f-or a continuous period of 2 years, but not 
before; and that this Policy shall not be in force until the Effective Date shown in the Policy Schedule. I am enclosing $1.00 for the first 
month's coverage. If, for any reason, I am not completely satisfied with this new protection--l may return my Policy within fifteen (15) 
days for cancelling and my payment will be promptly refunded. 



DATE 



X. 



SIGNATURE 



Be sure to Enclose $1 with your Enrollment Form 



September 1969 



59 



i r t ■« V . > 




Today's Family 




By Mabel Jones Gabbott 

Editorial Associate 



What Should Schools Teach Our 



• "Reading and writing and 
'rithmetic, 

Taught to the tune of a hickory 
stick. . . ." 

The words of this old song seem 
to sum up education in the schools 
a generation ago. Was it enough 
for that generation? Would it be 
enough for today's child? How far 
would the three "r's" take A child 
into tomorrow? What do parents 
want the schools to teach their 
children? 

We posed this last question to 
seven mothers: 




Mary L. Bradford, of Arlington, 
Virginia, is the mother of three, 



Mary L. Bankhead is mother of I Gracia S. Cook, of Bountiful, I 
seven children and wife of Reid ] Utah, teaches kindergarten and 
Bankhead, recently released presi- ' first grade; she has been involved 
dent of the Cumorah Mission at | in the Head Start program in edu- 
Rochester, New York. I cation and has specialized in 

I remedial reading. She is the mother 



I of five children. 



I 



-I 



Juanita Morrell, of Mt, Vernon, I Blanche P. Wilson, of Ogden, 

Washington, mother of four young I Utah, the mother of six children, 
has conducted a BYU Leadership ] children, has taught school in teaches at the Utah School for the 
Week workshop in children's litera- | Germany and in New York City. Blind in Ogden. She is a gifted 

ture and the creative process, and I Her husband teaches social science , artist and musician, 

works as a teaching consultant to ' in their community college. i 

the U.S. Government Accounting , i 

I Office in Washington, D.C. I ' 



60 



Improvement Era 




Children? 



voice their 




system 



I Emelyn R. Castleton, of Los i 
Angeles, California, is the mother ' 
of four children; her husband is a i 
hospital administrator. ' 



h 



1 



Elaine J. Castleton, of Malad 
City, Idaho, has five children and 
is the clerk of the Malad school 
board and a member of the Oneida 
County Hospital Board. Her hus- 
band heads the Malad High School 
music department. 



We share with yoxi their con- 
cerned thinking. 

"Much of the educational philos- 
ophy in our school system is 
responsible for the precarious 
situation our children find them- 
selves confronted with," notes Mary 
Bankhead. Herein lies the chal- 
lenge: arc we willing as parents 
and students to reexamine the basic 
principles that underlie what is 
being taught to our children?" 

"Reexamining" their expecta- 
tions from the schools, most of the 
mothers agreed that they do "reach 
every area of the child's life." As 
Juanita Morrell says, the school 
should "teach the whole child, con- 
cern itself with the child's person- 
ality and character development, 
and provide opportunities for the 
child to learn good leadership and 
followership." 

One of the school's roles, says 
Emelyn R. Castleton, is "the moti- 
vation and inspiration of a youth so 
he may develop self-confidence 
and a self-image that will enable 
him to have positive social inter- 
actions." 

Gracia Cook believes these 
values can be incorporated into the 
thinking and living of young chil- 
dren from the first grade. Chil- 
dren who are taught to be kind, 
brave, and honest learn to obey 
school rules, to tell the truth, to 
finish an assigned task, to help 
without being asked first, to play 
fairly. 

Elaine Castleton writes that the 
school should reinforce the disci- 
pline that begins at home: "I 
appreciate teachers and adminis- 
trators who help my children 
understand that there are certain 
rules and laws that must be 
obeyed, that there are people who 
have the right to tell them what 
they can do, and that the student 
has an obligation to preserve the 
properties and rights of others." 

One major concern expressed by 
the mothers was in the training 



September 1969 




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62 



of the child for his responsibilities 
in the world. Mrs. Morrell says, 
"Not the least of the school's 
responsibilities is to teach a skill or 
profession by which the individual 
can make a substantial living and 
with which he can make a worth- 
while contribution to society." This 
"specialized instruction," adds 
Emelyn Castleton, should have 
"enough adaptabiHty to keep ahead 
of the changes in society and 
technology." 

Blanche Wilson believes that 
one of the school's responsibilities 
is "to make a good citizen out of 
my child. A child cannot be a good 
citizen if he does not know how 
to read and write or to 'figure.' 
Nor is he a good citizen if he does 
not understtind about people out- 
side his own home. Even a handi- 
capped student should not be 
excused from the responsibility to 
learn these things." 

Elaine Castleton points out the 
emphasis the schools have placed 
in recent years on the education of 
the more intellectual student, and 
the increase in scholarships avail- 
able for the student with a high 
grade-point average. She says: 
"Many students who would do 
very well in schools under ordinary 
learning situations become frus- 
trated and do poorly in the face of 
such pressure and competition. 
There is a need for a variety of 
skills and for various types of 
knowledge in our society. I would 
hope that the schools could help 
each student fulfill his own poten- 
tial, with the personal assurance to 
the student that this was a mean- 
ingfvil accomplishment, that society 
did need him and appreciated what 
he could do, and that his services 
were valuable a"d necessary." 

These mothers were also con- 
cerned with developing the creative 
energy of the child. 

Mary Bradford observes: "One 
day, as I entered our elementary 
school, I stopped to admire a dis- 



play of tapestries prepared by the 
fourth grade. A member of the 
class approached. 'Very good art 
work,' I said. 'Yes,' she answered, 
'and the teacher did three-fourths 
of it.' 

"Much of the so-called creative 
work done in the schools," con- 
tinues Mary, "is not the work of the 
children themselves. Not only that, 
but it is often used only as a reward 
for academic success. Although I 
applaud academic requirements, I 
think the schools could achieve 
a better balance by realizing that 
academics represent only one kind 
of ability. 

"Art, music, literature, and other 
forms not only develop other abili- 
ties, but also provide an index to 
the state of the child's mind. It 
is now known that the once- 
celebrated IQ tests leave at least 
70 aspects of that mind completely 
untouched. Teachers trained in the 
best use of the arts can teach their 
students and reach them too. And 
if these students are allowed free 
expression through various media, 
they may one day contribute some 
of the creative energies so badly 
needed in this world, so badly 
needed in worlds to come." 

Emelyn Castleton comments: 
"We have been fortunate in our 
locality to have some of the latest 
educational concepts and audio- 
visual aids used in our schools. My 
children have been exposed to 
various types of cultures that have 
broadened their views and taught 
them to be more understanding 
and tolerant." 

Reinforcing moral values, learn- 
ing skills, and developing creative 
energies are programs and patterns 
these mothers will expect from our 
schools. Is there more? 

One of our Church leaders tells 
the story of an employer in a 
southern town who hired or re- 
jected applicants for a job on the 
basis of their answers to one ques- 
tion: "Do you think?" 



Improvement Era 



The child leaves the home en- 
vironment and goes to the school 
to be educated. To be educated is 
to think, to reason, to evaluate 
knowledge accumulated, to learn 
to make decisions, and to act. 

Mrs. Morrell says the school 
should teach the child "to analyze 
problems and solve them and to 
listen to opinions, get all the facts, 
and form his own opinion." 

Mrs. Wilson states; "I have en- 
countered children and young 
adults who can do their lessons 
each day and recite what the 
teacher wants to hear, but who are 
unable to carry on a conversation 
with either a friend or a teacher 
about some subject outside of 
records or TV." The school has -a 
responsibility, she feels, to help the 
child have "the desire to learn more 
and more, to explore many areas, 
to study, to speak his thoughts 
clearly, to recognize that his prob- 
lems are similar to other people's 
problems, and that he is not alone 
in his search for answers." She adds 
that it is fortunate that there are 
teachers who are able to help 
young people to think and con- 
sider, and "to follow a rewarding 
path of life, and occasionally to 
rescue one who has no path at all." 

Mrs. Morrell also points out that 
the school should be concerned 
about social problems affecting 
students. Many schools, she says, 
are teaching about the use of 
tobacco, alcohol, and drugs. She 
feels that "an understanding of 
these problems has helped many 
young people see the end from the 
beginning and avoid disaster." 

However, it is not enough, warns 
Mary Bankhead, to "leave our chil- 
dren with the understanding that 
reason is the only criterion of truth. 
As parents and teachers of youth, 
we must search again the message 
of our Savior, Jesus Christ, and heed 
the words of the prophets. This 
study will give us the way of life 
to make our children the kind of 



men and women who will create 
and make of their environment 
what it should be." 

As we can expect moral disci- 
pline, creative encouragement, skill 
training, and reasoning power from 
the teachers in our schools, it is 



hoped that we can also expect 
compassion for the student, interest 
in his particular capabilities, en- 
couragement for his conceptual 
reasoning— that the teachers be in 
fact not only teachers of informa- 
tion, but also teachers of people. O 



•3f 

Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 



you . . . grown older 



There is this observation from an unnamed source: 'There is an 
old man up there ahead of you that you ought to know. He 
looks somewhat like you, talks like you, walks like you. He has 
your nose, your eyes, your chin: and whether he loves you or hates 
you, respects you or despises you, whether he is angry or comfortable, 
whether he is miserable or happy, depends on you. For you made him. 
He is you, grown older."^ This has both caution and promise, depend- 
ing upon which direction we choose to take. "We live forward, we 
understand backwards," said William James. ^ And yet we are not 
altogether at a loss to know, along broad lines, where any road will 
lead. There are many who have traveled almost every road that we 
might choose to take; there are many who have done most things 
that we might choose to do, and we can look to the principles that 
have been proved and the results that have been realized in the lives 
that others have lived. Every young person, for example, can know 
that patience, preparation, learning, working are essential for a fullness 
of life. Any observer, of the present or the past, may know that clean- 
liness of body, of mind and morals is kindly and peacefully comforta- 
ble; that uncleanness is coarsening and corrosive; that standards are 
essential; that personal responsibility is real; that law sustains life; 
that there are consequences for every act; that "wickedness never was 
happiness";^ that the commandments are founded on eternal facts. 
If we live one way, we get one result— if we live another way, we get 
another result. We ought to be smart enough, realistic enough, ob- 
servant and alert enough to know this, forward as well as backward. 
"There is an old man up there ahead of you that you ought to know 
.... whether he is miserable or happy, depends on you. For you 
made him. He is you, grown older." 



iRotary Club Bulletin of Graham, Texas; author unknown. 
^Hlbbert Lectures at Oxford. 
3AI ma 41:10. 

♦"The Spoken Word" from Temple Square, 
presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting System June 29, 1969. Copyright 1969. 



September 1969 



63 






"AND SHOULD 
WE DIE" 

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The Lure of 
Home-Baked Cookies 

• To return home from any school 
— whether in California, Oregon, 
Idaho, Utah, or New York — to the 
smell of freshly baked cookies 
makes school a better memory 
and home a best-beloved place. 
Our mothers share the following 
cookie recipes with you: 

Peanut Butter Crispies 

1 cup light corn syrup 
1 cup sugar 
1 cup peanut butter 
6 cups crisp rice cereal 
1 6-ounce package semi-sw/eet choco- 
late chips 

Bring corn syrup and sugar to boil. 
Fold in peanut butter and rice cereal. 
Pour into 9xl3-inch pan. Sprinkle the 
package of chocolate chips on top. Put 
in 250° F. oven only until chocolate 
chips have melted; spread over the top. 
Cut in squares when the chocolate is 
set. 

Macaroons 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

3/4 
2 

V2 

V2 

V2 

1 



cup shortening 
cup brown sugar 
cup white sugar 
egg, beaten well 
teaspoon vanilla 
cup coconut 

cups quick-cooking oatmeal 
cups flour 

teaspoon baking soda 
teaspoon baking powder 
teaspoon salt 

6-ounce package semi-sweet choc- 
olate chips 



Cream shortening; add brown and white 
sugars, egg, vanilla, and oatmeal. Sift 
flour, soda, baking powder, and salt, 
and add to other ingredients. Add 
chocolate chips. Form into balls a little 
larger than a walnut; place on cookie 
sheet and press down with a fork. Bake 
8 to 10 minutes in a 375° F. oven. 

Hello, Dolly! Cookies 

V4 pound butter 

1 cup finely rolled graham crackers 

1 cup chocolate chips 

1 cup soft coconut 

1 cup nuts 

1 cup sweetened condensed milk 

Melt butter in a 9xl3-inch pan. Sprinkle 
graham crackers over the butter. Mash 
down with spoon. Sprinkle over this the 
chocolate chips, coconut, and nuts, 
and pour the milk evenly over the top. 
Bake at 350-375° F. for 30 minutes. 
Makes about 30 cookies. 



Improvement Era 



Butterscotch Bars 

y^ cup butter 

2 cups brown sugar 

2 eggs 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

2 cups sifted flour 

2 teaspoons baking powder 

l^ teaspoon salt 

1 cup shredded coconut 

1 cup chopped walnuts 

In saucepan combine butter and brown 
sugar; cook over low heat until bubbly, 
stirring constantly. Cool. Add eggs to 
cooled mixture, one at a time, beating 
well after each addition. Add vanilla. 
Sift together dry ingredients; add with 
coconut and nuts. Spread in greased 
pan. Bake at 350° F. about 25 minutes. 
Cut in bars while warm, and remove 
from pan when almost cool. Makes 3 
dozen. 



Fork Cookies 






11/2 
1 


cups sugar 
cup butter 






2 
2 

4 


eggs 

tablespoons milk 

cups flour 

teaspoons cream of tartar 

teaspoons vanilla 

cup raisins (ground) 



Cream sugar, butter, and eggs. Add 
milk, flour, cream of tartar, and vanilla. 
Mix together. Add raisins. Form into 
balls and pat with a fork. Bake at 375° 
F. for 10 or 12 minutes. (You may sub- 
stitute orange juice for milk, or wheat 
germ for 1 cup flour.) 

Marble Brownies 

1 cup shortening (or V2 cup butter 
and iy4 cup margarine) 
cups sugar 
eggs 

cups flour 
teaspoon salt 
teaspoon baking powder 

.> cup nuts 
114 teaspoons vanilla 

2 squares melted chocolate 



2 
4 
2 

1/2 
1 
1 



Cream shortening. Add sugar gradually. 
Add eggs one at a time and beat after 
each addition. Add sifted flour, salt, 
and baking powder. Add nuts and va- 
nilla. Divide batter into two parts. Add 
melted chocolate to one half. Spread 
chocolate batter in bottom of pan; then 
add white batter. Bake for 40 minutes 
in 300° F. oven. Frost with fudge 
frosting. 

Fudge Frosting 

lYz cups sugar 

Yz cup cream 

i/i cup water 

1 tablespoon light corn syrup 
Ys teaspoon salt 

2 squares melted chocolate 

2 tablespoons butter — ^ 



September 1969 




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Beginning this year, the electric rate for heating in 
total electric homes was reduced 20%. 

Yours is probably one of the 4 out of 5 existing 
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Electric heat costs in most homes are now about 
the same as gas. 



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COVENANT RECORDINGS 



65 



1 teaspoon vanilla 

Cook first five ingredients to soft-ball 
stage. Cool to lukewarm. Add melted 
chocolate, butter, and vanilla. Beat by 
hand until proper spreading consis- 
tency. 

Applesauce Cookies 

yi cup shortening 

1 cup sugar 

1 egg 

2 cups flour 

y2 teaspoon cloves 

V^ teaspoon salt 

V^ teaspoon cinnamon 

y^ teaspoon nutmeg 

1 teaspoon soda 

1 cup applesauce 

1 cup nuts 

1 cup raisins 

Cream shortening and sugar. Add egg, 
flour, and spices. Mix soda with apple- 
sauce. Add to mixture. Add nuts and 
raisins. Bake at 350° F. about 12 to 14 
minutes or until light brown. 

Carrot-Orange Cookies 

1 cup shortening 

3/^ cup sugar 

1 egg, unbeaten 

1 cup mashed cooked carrots 



1 teaspoon vanilla 

2 cups all-purpose flour 

2 teaspoons baking powder 

14 teaspoon salt 

Cream shortening until light and fluffy. 
Gradually beat in sugar. Add egg, car- 
rots, and vanilla, beating well after each 
addition. Sift together dry ingredients 
and combine with carrot mixture; mix 
well. Drop batter by tablespoons onto 
greased cookie sheets. Bake in moder- 
ate oven (350° F.) for about 20 min- 
utes. Remove from pan to cool. Frost 
with orange frosting while still warm. 
Makes about 4 dozen. 

Orange Frosting: Combine juice of 14 
orange, grated rind of one orange, 1 
tablespoon butter, and about 1 cup 
confectioners' sugar. 

Cherry Chews 



^3 

y^ 

1 
1 
1 

2 

1 

Vz 
Va 
Va 

¥2 
V2 



cup shortening 

cup sugar 

teaspoon lemon peel 

teaspoon vanilla 

egg 

tablespoons milk 

cup flour 

teaspoon baking powder 

teaspoon soda 

teaspoon salt 

cup seedless raisins 

cup chopped walnuts 



iy2 cups wheat flakes, slightly crushed 
Candied cherries 

Thoroughly cream together first four 
ingredients. Add egg and milk. Beat 
thoroughly. Sift dry ingredients togeth- 
er. Add to creamed mixture, mixing 
well. Stir in raisins and nuts. Drop by 
teaspoons onto crushed wheat flakes. 
Toss lightly to coat. Place on greased 
cookie sheet about two inches apart. 
Top each with a candied cherry half. 
Bake in 400° F. oven about 12 minutes. 
Makes three dozen cookies. 

Banana Nugget Cookies 

34 cup shortening 
1 cup sugar 
1 egg 
lyz cups sifted flour 
V2 teaspoon baking soda 

1 teaspoon salt 
y^ teaspoon nutmeg 
3/i teaspoon cinnamon 
1 cup ripe bananas, mashed 
134 cups quick-cooking rolled oats 
1 6-ounce package chocolate chips 

Cream shortening. Add sugar and egg. 
Sift together dry ingredients; add alter- 
nately to creamed mixture with mashed 
bananas. Stir in rolled oats and choco- 
late chips. Drop by spoonfuls on lightly 
greased cookie sheet. Bake at 400° F. 
about 15 minutes. O 



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Manager, L.D.S. Department 
294-1025 




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66 



Improvement Era 



THE NEXT TIME 

YOU GET MAD 

ATATELEVISION 

NEWS REPORT 

KEEP THIS IN MIND. 



"Congress shall make no law abridging the freedom 
of speech, or of the press." 

—FIRST AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION 

"The freedom of the press is one of the bulwarks of 
liberty, and can never be restrained but by despotic 

governments." —Virginia bill of rights 

"The freedom of speech may be taken away, and 
dumb and silent we may be led like sheep to the 
slaughter." -george Washington 

"The theory of a free press is that truth will emerge 
from free reporting, not that it will be presented per- 
fectly and instantly in any one account." 

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"Absolute freedom of the press to discuss public ques- 
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"If a nation expects to be ignorant and free, it expects 
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Channel r^ ksl-tv 



SALT LAKE CiTY. UTAH 



September 1969 67 




was 



Asleep at My 



said Orson h Whitney, 

or any woman, who, having 

appointed to do one 
does another" 



• Elder Orson F. Whitney (1855-1931), 
one of the poet-historian princes of the 
Latter-day Saints, became an apostle 
April 9, 1906, at the same time as 
George F. Richards and David 0. IVIcKay. 

Elder Whitney, always a popular and 
much-sought-for speaker, spoke at the 
MIA June Conference in 1925, recall- 
ing how, as a young man of 21, he 
had served a mission in Pennsylvania 
and had found some success in ex- 
pressing his thoughts in newspaper 
articles and poems. 

His companion chided: "You ought 
to be studying the books of the Church; 
you were sent out to preafch the gospel, 
not to write for the newspapers." 

Young Whitney knew his missionary- 
brother was right, but he still kept on, 
fascinated by the discovery that he 
could wield a pen. In his words, as 
he spoke at a Sabbath evening MIA 
session June 7, 1925: 

"One night I dreamed — if dream it 
may be called — that I was in the Gar- 
den of Gethsemane, a witness of the 
Savior's agony. I saw Him as plainly 
as I see this congregation. I stood 
behind a tree in the foreground, where 
I could see without being seen. Jesus, 
with Peter, James and John, came 
through a little wicket gate at my right. 
Leaving the three Apostles there, after 
telling them to kneel and pray, he 



passed over to the other side,' where 
he also knelt and prayed. It was the 
same prayer with which we are all 
familiar: '0 my Father, if it be possible, 
let this cup pass from me; neverthe- 
less not as I will, but as thou wilt.' 
(Matt. 26:36-44; Mark 14:32-41; Luke 
22:42.) 

"As he prayed the tears streamed 
down his face, which was toward me, 
I was so moved at the sight that I 
wept also, out of pure sympathy with 
his great sorrow. My whole heart went 
out to him, I loved him with all my 
soul, and longed to be with him as I 
longed for nothing else. 

"Presently he arose and walked to 
where the Apostles were kneeling — fast 
asleep! He shook them gently, awoke 
them, and in a tone of tender reproach, 
untinctured by the least suggestion of 
anger or scolding asked them if they 
could not watch with him one hour. 
There he was, with the weight of the 
world's sin upon his shoulders, with 
the pangs of every man, woman and 
child shooting through his sensitive 
soul — and they could not watch with 
him one poor hour! 

"Returning to his place, he prayed 
again, and then went back and found 
them again sleeping. Again he awoke 
them, admonished them, and returned 
and prayed as before. Three times this 



happened, until I was perfectly familiar 
with his appearance — face, form and 
movements. He was of noble stature 
and of majestic mien — not at all the 
weak, effeminate being that some 
painters have portrayed — a very God 
among men, yet as meek and lowly as 
a little child. 

"All at once the circumstances 
seemed to change, the scene remain- 
ing just the same. Instead of before, 
it was after the crucifixion, and the 
Savior, with those three Apostles, now 
stood together in a group at my left. 
They were about to depart and ascend 
into Heaven. I could endure it no 
longer. I ran out from behind the tree, 
fell at his feet, clasped him around 
the knees, and begged him to take me 
with him. 

"I shall never forget the kind and 
gentle manner in which He stooped 
and raised me up and embraced me. 
It was so vivid, so real, that I felt the 
very warmth of his bosom against 
which I rested. Then He said: 'No, my 
son; these have finished their work, 
and they may go with me, but you must 
stay and finish yours.' Still I clung to 
him. Gazing up into his face — for he 
was taller than I — I besought him most 
earnestly: 'Well, promise me that I will 
come to you at the last.' He smiled 
sweetly and tenderly and replied: 'That 



68 



Improvement Era 



Post," 

'as any man is, 

been divine 
thing, 



will depend entirely upon yourself.' i 
awoke with a sob in my throat, and it 
was morning." 

"That's from God," Elder Musser 
said, when he heard the story. 

"I don't need to be told that," Elder 
Whitney replied, and then he told the 
vast MIA congregation: 

"I saw the moral clearly. I had never 
thought that I would be an Apostle, or 
hold any other office in the Church; 
and it did not occur to me even then. 
Yet I knew that those sleeping apostles 
meant me. I was asleep at my post — 
as any man is, or any woman, who, 
having been divinely appointed to do 
one thing, does another. 

"But from that hour all was changed 
— I was a different man. I did not give 
up writing, for President Brigham 
Young, having noticed some of my 
contributions in the home papers, 
wrote advising me to cultivate what he 
called my 'gift for writing' so that I 
might use it in future years 'for the 
establishment of truth and righteous- 
ness upon the earth.' This was his last 
word of counsel to me. He died the 
same year, while I was still in the mis- 
sion field, . . . laboring then in the 
State of Ohio. I continued to write, 
but it was for the Church and Kingdom 
of God. I held that first and foremost; 
all else was secondary." O 



September 1969 



Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 



Without law 



This message was once sent to a President of the 
United States by a group of concerned young 
people: "We stand for preservation of our 
heritage through obedience to law."^ Without law, 
respect for it, living by it, upholding it, we would 
have no heritage. Law sustains life. Law keeps the 
universe in its course. Law assures that orderly pro- 
cesses will lead to known results. Without law there 
would be no safety, no standards, no assurance, no 
guidelines in life. Without law men, nature, life, 
would be in complete chaos. Then why, O why, 
should there be looseness pertaining to law, failure 
to uphold it? Frank Crane once gave some terse 
sentences on this subject: "Every generation a new 
crop of fools comes on," he said. "They think they 
can beat the orderly universe. They conceive them- 
selves to be more clever than the eternal laws. 
They snatch goods from Nature's store, and run. . . . 
And one by one they all come back to Nature's 
counter, and pay— pay in tears, in agony, in despair; 
pay as fools before them have paid. . . . Nature keeps 
books pitilessly. Your credit with her is good, but 
she collects; there is no land you can flee to and 
escape her bailiffs. . . . She never forgets; she sees, 
to it that you pay her every cent you owe, with 
interest."^ Thank God for law, for those who respect 
it, live by it, help to sustain it: for the laws of 
health; for the renewal of the air and water of the 
earth— for seeds that produce what was planted, 
for the succession of the seasons, for everything 
that leads to a known result, and sustains life, and 
makes peace and orderly purpose possible. Every- 
thing we have, everything we may ever expect to 
have, everything we can count on would be lacking 
without law. Everything that we can count on comes 
with living and working with law. "We stand for 
the preservation of our heritage through obedience 
to law." 



iM-Men-Gleaners, 1929. 

^Dr. Frank Crane, Four Minute Essays; Pay, Pay, Pay! 

* "The Spoken Word" from Temple 
Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting 
System July 6, 1969. Copyright 1%9. 



69 



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70 



• The need for association and in- 
volvement with others is essential 
for man if he is to develop into an 
adequate, worthwhile individual, 
Brotherhood is a prerequisite for 
godhood. 

When a baby comes into the 
world, he is on the receiving end 
and thinks primarily of self. He is 
uniquely different from all other 
persons, yet he shares the same 
desires and needs. As the child 
develops, however, he transfers 
much of his "me" tendencies to a 
group pattern. He becomes a part 
of a working group, sharing its 
common goals and interests, giving 
to others (ofttimes unknowingly), 
and receiving satisfaction and 
growth as a by-product of his 
actions. 

From time immemorial man has 
recognized that to have a strong 
brotherhood, there must be a shar- 
ing and working together in love 
and fellowship. He must give loy- 
alty, love, appreciation, and under- 
standing before he can keep these 
virtues as his own. When he 
achieves this maturity, he has ad- 
vanced from babyhood and is now 
giving as well as receiving. 



Dr. P. Wendel Johnson, director 
of the Institute of Religion at 
Ogden, Utah, is second counselor 
in the Weber State College Stake 
and has also had extensive ex- 
perience as a psychotherapist. 



Improvement Era 







By Dr. P. Wendel Johnson 



W6 often discuss the fatherhood 
of God and the brotherhood of 
man, but equally as often we do . 
not get beyond words. Brotherhood 
comes only with a price— a price 
paid in unselfishness, responsibility, 
love, forgiveness, and communica- 
tion with self and others. 

Teachers especially should accept 
the challenge to lift brotherhood 
from a verbal content to a feeling, 
sharing experience. This task con- 
sists of being sensitive to the un- 
seen needs, the yearnings, desires, 
and hopes of others. 

Brotherhood does not necessarily 
unfold because and when "good 
fellows" get together. Anyone can 
be a good fellow and yet fail to 
become an integral part of a united 
brotherhood. Unfortunately one 
may feel that his position or title 
precludes his need to share in a 
meaningful relationship. Another, 
because he is a popular person, may 
not feel the necessity to become part 
of the brotherhood. Friction may 
result because each "good fellow" 
is acting independently ' and not 
fully appreciating his opportunity 
or responsibility to foster and reap 
the rewards of genuine brother- 
hood. 

Brotherhood is sometimes more 
than persons working in the same 
building or for the same general 
cause— it is more than assuming the 



same intellectual goals. It is com- 
munication from brother to brother. 
The zenith of brotherhood is 
reached when the gospel is lived 
and shared. 

But where does the "I" fit in? 
The "I" must blend itself into "we" 
if a brotherhood is to become a 
fountain of growth and under- 
standing. Just how important is 
this? Can we identify some of the 
essential elements that help to 
make a meaningful and growing 
brotherhood with our fellow co- 
workers? President Brigham Young, 
speaking in the old tabernacle in 
1861, made the following prophetic 
utterance pertaining to the "I" in 
brotherhood: 

"The brethren come here from 
the States and from the old coun- 
tries . . . expecting to learn the 
great mysteries— the secret things 
of God. What do you learn, broth- 
ers and sisters? If you are good 
scholars, you learn to treat your 
neighbors as they should be treated, 
and to have the same affections for 
a person from Ireland or England 
as you do one from your own native 
land. . . . You come here to learn 
that every person is a little different 
from you. . . . 

"The greatest lesson you can 
learn is to learn yourselves. When 
we learn ourselves, we learn our 
neighbors. . . . You cannot learn it 



immediately, neither can all the 
philosophy of the age teach it to 
you: you have to come here to get 
a practical experience and to learn 
yourselves. You will then begin to 
learn more perfectly the things of 
God. No being can thoroughly learn 
himself, without understanding 
more or less of the things of God: 
neither can any being learn and 
understand the things of God, 
without learning himself. . . . This 
is a lesson to us." (Journal of Dis- 
courses, Vol. 8, pp. 334-35.) 

This prophetic truism of Presi- 
dent Young's— that the major secret 
of successful brotherhood is learn- 
ing, accepting, and improving self 
—is reaffirmed by modern psycholo- 
gists and sociologists. A physician 
encourages his patients to subscribe 
to a physical checkup each year. 
Should we not also include a check- 
up of our own emotional life by 
making a personal inventory of our 
strengths, limitations, fears, anxie- 
ties, hopes, and frustrations? Then 
should we not individually decide 
how they affect our relationships 
with others? 

Learning to know oneself is an 
'on-going process and ofttimes a 
painful one. Honest objectivity is 
a prime prerequisite necessary for 
one to recognize and change those 
personal characteristics that retard 
his growth and inhibit his full 



September 1969 



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72 




communication, acceptance, and 
understanding of others. He who 
cultivates this kind of objectivity 
can learn how to change himself, 
and with courage he can also learn 
to live with those things he cannot 
change. 

To know oneself is to learn the 
meaning of the word "why" about 
oneself. Why is one jealous? Why 
is he fearful, envious, and hateful? 
Why does he use the well-known 
defense mechanisms to protect his 
self-image? Once these questions 
are answered, he must then decide 
how to use his newly learned 
knowledge. To know himself, one 
must strive to be emotionally hon- 
est in expressing his feelings spon- 
taneously and sincerely to others 
without feeling the need to protect 
his own ego. He must be honest 
with himself so that he can be 
honest enough with others to allow 
them to be different. 

The Lord gave to the Prophet 
Joseph an insight into a meaningful 
brotherhood in one of his many 
revelations: "Therefore, strengthen 
your brethren in all your conversa- 
tion, in all your prayers, in all your 
exhortations and in all your doings." 
(D&C 108:7.) In this advice the 
Lord was giving his servant the 
basic steps in forming a brother- 
hood. 

A thought-provoking Jewish prov- 
erb states that a person who saves 
one man is looked upon as if he 
had saved all men, and he who 
destroys one man is judged as if he 
had destroyed all men, for if a 
person is the savior of one man, he 
could well be the savior of others. 
And likewise, to be able to destroy 
one man, he becomes a potential 
threat to the destruction of others. 

Let us consider some of the 
principles that are essential in 
achieving brotherhood among our 
brothers. Does each man envision 
what steps must be taken to achieve 
a real brotherhood? Does each per- 



son recognize that one of the prime 
purposes of brotherhood is to help 
each other become more effective 
and to provide a favorable climate 
that will encourage each individual 
to release his own inhibitions and 
fears so that he might grow and 
develop in love and confidence? 
Can this be accomplished if he feels 
pressures of duress and the lack of 
support and understanding of other 
persons? In other words, does each 
understand and share the same 
goals? Without this knowledge and 
an incentive to achieve, little suc- 
cess will be experienced. 

The following suggestions may 
be useful in helping persons to be- 
come conscious of an overall con- 
cept of brotherhood. 

1. Provide a warm, understand- 
ing atmosphere so that every 
member will have and desire self- 
expression. 

2. Provide each person within 
the brotherhood the opportunity to 
express himself. This makes him 
an interested and intelligent part- 
ner—one who has a vested interest 
in the brotherhood. 

3. Enable each person to sense 
his importance to the group and to 
realize that the ultimate success in 
brotherhood is primarily deter- 
mined by his awn involvement and 
the involvement of others. (The 
leader who does everything for the 
group virtually stifles individual 
and brotherhood growth.) 

A healthy attitude and a sincere 
desire are essential keys to a suc- 
cessful brotherhood. Attitudes are 
more than intellectual experiences. 
They are linked to such emotions 
as fear, rage, love, jealousy. They 
are the sum total of one's feelings 
and prejudices and his precon- 
ceived notions about another per- 
son. If a person's attitude can be 
favorably changed toward each 
member of his group, the entire re- 
lationship takes on new meaning 
and depth. If one will accept the 



Improvement Era 



attitude "I will draw near to you," 
his fellow workers will ultimately 
draw near to him. 

With a positive, non threatening 
attitude, one can then begin to 
build a helping relationship for 
himself and his brothers— a rela- 
tionship that facilitates develop- 
ment and growth for one another 
in emotional maturity and person- 
ality growth. In the scriptures this 
is called godlike. A growing, help- 
ing relationship can never exist 
when one has negative and defen- 
sive attitudes that compel him to 
withdraw or retreat into neurotic 
safety zones. With positive, whole- 
some attitudes he can still differ 
and yet be understood and accepted 
by others. 

To change attitudes, it is well to 
remember that: 

1. Because they are closely 
linked to the emotions, attitudes 
are seldom changed or developed 
by persuasion or force. 

2. Since individuals cannot al- 
ways be approached directly, we 
must provide positive experiences 
wherein changes in attitudes will 
emerge as secondary factors. This 
is accomplished by providing the 
opportunity to develop specific 
skills, acceptable habits, and learn- 
ing. Attitudes, once acquired, 
linger long after the experiences 
through which the attitudes were 
learned. 

3. An opportunity must be pro- 
vided for each person to express in 
words the change that has taken 
place in his feelings toward a cer- 
tain person or situation. This will 
help him recognize and understand 
the attitudinal change that has 
taken place within him. 

Each person should ask himself 
these questions: Do I become 
envious or jealous when one of my 
fellow workers receives a single 
honor or award? Can I truthfully 
thrill with his success and feel I 
have played a small part in his 



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74 



accomplishment? Jealousy or envy 
is a warning signal that the inter- 
personal relationship is not healthy. 
In a healthy brotherhood there is 
no need for rivalry or competi- 
tion, for competition is with self, 
not with others. 

Within each of us there is a love 
stream and a hate stream. Emo- 
tional energy can flow down either 
stream, depending upon the confi- 
dence one has in self and others or 
the fears he has of self and others. 

Other questions that need to be 
answered are: Does my emotional 
maturity permit others to differ 
from me? Will I accept and under- 
stand them in their differences? If 
a person can answer "yes," it is 
quite apparent that the "I" is paying 
the price of understanding and 
learning how his brother feels to- 
ward himself and the world about 
him. It is learning to accept with 
understanding his fears, apprehen- 
sions, goals, failures, and successes. 
Until the "I" is emotionally mature 
and motivated to do this, brother- 
hood will be only a name without 
feeling, and misunderstandings and 
unresolved differences will always 
exist. The result will be merely an 
aggregate number of individuals 
going their own respective ways. 

The Savior, tuned in with the 
woman taken in adultery, gave her 
a vision of hope and a goal for the 
future. He neither condemned nor 
upheld her in her mistake; rather, 
he accepted her as a person of 
worth and created a relationship 
that made it possible for her to look 
at herself and her actions with ob- 
jectivity. Through his giving of 
himself, the woman was able to 
perceive and accept herself. 

The above experience indicates 
that we should: 

1. Take time to get acquainted 
with the other fellow— walk in his 
shoes and learn to appreciate his 
inner feelings by getting acquainted 
with him at work, in the home, and 



socially. The other fellow believes 
that his ideas and thoughts are con- 
sistent and good. If this were not 
so, he would not retain them. 

2. Try walking the second mile 
with our brother and do what- 
ever is possible to alleviate his per- 
sonal problems, his concerns, his 
anxieties. 

3. When a difference arises with 
our brother, be sure that in coping 
with the situation we attack the 
problem instead of his personality. 

How effective is my communica- 
tion? Communication is the basic 
tool used for the improvement of 
brotherhood relationships. If we 
see the trustworthiness and integ- 
rity of the communicant, our com- 
munication becomes meaningful 
and forthcoming because we are 
accepted. When we judge others, 
our communication often breaks 
down because the "I" dominates 
the "we." The stronger the "I" feels 
about a subject or an idea (i.e., 
politics, reHgion, etc.), the greater 
is his challenge to understand and 
be understood. 

Unless the "I" listens, there is no 
real communication. Without the 
"we" in communication, there is 
only an exchange of meaningless 
words, for communication is a two- 
way process wherein one listens 
creatively as well as speaks to be 
understood. A one-way communi- 
cation does not fulfill the require- 
ments of brotherhood, because a 
person is too occupied in putting 
across his own ideas and denying 
his brother his chance for emphatic 
self-expression. Remember, when 
there is no communication, personal 
relations have broken down. A 
conflict exists between the sender 
and the receiver wherein either or 
both need help to remove the 
obstacles of defensive self-justifi- 
cation. 

Some people listen but do not 
hear. They seldom take time to stop 
to listen to the impHcation of what 



Improvement Era 



is being said. What do my brother's 
words imply? To understand our 
brother, we must find the message 
beyond the spoken words. 

The success of a brotherhood 
centers within the individual. If 
he is immature and hides like an 
ostrich behind a protective cloak 
of unreality, he will deny that prob- 
lems and misunderstandings exist 
within the brotherhood. Somehow 
he will shut reality out of his mind, 
and to live with himself he will 
fortify the "I" with defense mechan- 
isms that really do not hide his 
weaknesses but unwittingly make 
them more obvious to others. Thus, 
he retires more and more into a 
false seclusion with his own in- 
adequacies. 

If he is emotionally mature and 
devoid of excessive defense mech- 
anisms, he will face whatever 
problems may exist and attempt to 
find suitable solutions for them. He 
will learn to live with his brothers 
even though they may differ in 
opinion. Without losing his emo- 
tional composure, he will accept 
and understandingly tolerate un- 
solved difficulties and differences 
that may exist among them. In this 
way he has subjected the love of 
the "I" by acquiring a conscious- 
ness of the greater possibilities for 
personality expansion in the broth- 
erhood of the "we." In paraphras- 
ing a statement of the Savior, we 
could say: to save the "I" one must 
first learn to lose himself in the 
greater love of the "we." 

Essentially, when one has been 
accepted into brotherhood, he has 
learned to know himself. He per- 
ceives a fresh approach to himself 
and others, and, viewing himself 
objectively, he stands stripped of all 
dishonesty. In this clarity of vision, 
he achieves communication from 
soul to soul. It is the only way to 
peace and contentment and to the 
full realization of his potential 
manhood. O 



September 1969 



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75 



The Church 
Moves On 



June 1969 



Cassia East Stake in Idaho was 
organized by Elder LeGrand Richards 
of the Council of the Twelve. The' stake 
results from a name change and a 
realignment of wards. Raft River Stake 
was disorganized, and its wards became 
a part of the new stake. The Decio and 
Springdale wards were transferred to 
the new stake from Burley Stake. 

New stake presidency: President De- 
vere Harris and counselors Myron P. 
Sorenson and Herman Miller, Jr., Malad 
(Idaho-Utah) Stake. 



San Diego North Stake was or- 
ganized from parts of San Diego (Cali- 
fornia) Stake by Elder Mark E. Petersen 
of the Council of the Twelve. President 
Ray M. Brown and counselors Don L. 
Riggs and Carl J. Bair were sustained 
in this, the 489th stake now functioning 
in the Church. 



New Hue 

By Maureen Cannon 

/ raise the lid — oh, washday 
shock! 

I gasp, I bleat, I blink. . . . 

One sly and sneaky bright 
red sock 

Has taken charge 
And, by and large, 

My whites are "in the pink"! 



New stake presidencies: President 
Reed E. Brown and counselors Carl T. 
Ovard and Robert A. Williams, Summit 
(Utah) Stake; President Clinton D. 
Davis and counselors Raymond M. 
Williams and DeVoe C. Gill, San Diego 
Stake. 

This was the last weekend in which 
stake conferences were scheduled be- 
fore a six-week summer vacation. 

Governor Calvin L. Rampton of Utah 
has proclaimed June 22-29 as Mutual 
Improvement Associations Week. The 
declaration especially honors the cen- 
tennial observance of the YWMIA, to be 
held at June Conference. 



This was a YWMIA Camp Day, 
the beginning of pre-June Conference 
events. In the early evening the Master 
M Man-Golden Gleaner banquet was 
held in the new Salt Palace. 

Then at the Salt Palace it was the 
elegant once-in-a-lifetime occasion, the 
Centennial Ball of the Young Women's 
Mutual Improvement Association, with 
dancing appropriately bridging the 
century. 

"Mini-Musicals," five prize-winning 
roadshow acts, a full-length play pre- 
sentation, and "The Sound of Theater" 
each began three-night performances at 
locations on the University of Utah 
campus. 

A centennial reception in the newly 
restored Lion House, the Brigham 
Young home where the MIA was orga- 
nized, began at four this afternoon. 
They will continue Friday and Saturday 
afternoons. 



A sunrise YWMIA centennial ser- 
vice for young women leaders of the 
Church was held at 6:00 this morning 
in the Salt Lake Tabernacle. The spe- 
cial program featured premiere of a 
film on the early days of YWMIA, Pio- 
neers in Petticoats, and an address by 
President N. Eldon Tanner of the First 
Presidency. 

General sessions of the 70th annual 
June Conference were held at 9:30 a.m. 
and 1:30 p.m. 

"There's Nothing Like a Girl" was 
theme of the dance festival, which was 



presented in the first of three per- 
formances at the University of Utah 
stadium. 

A quartet festival of singing was 
presented in the Tabernacle, featuring 
ten quartets from throughout the 
Church. The drama presentations were 
repeated at University of Utah loca- 
tions. 

This day was also the 125th anni- 
versary of the martyrdom of the 
Prophet Joseph Smith and his brother 
Hyrum. 



Today was devoted to comprehen- 
sive departmental sessions and work- 
shops for MIA officers and teachers, 
followed by the dance and quartet festi- 
vals. Lion House reception, and drama 
presentations in the evening. 



The traditional Sabbath morning 
session in the Tabernacle, under the 
direction of the First Presidency, closed 
the MIA June Conference. It was an- 
nounced during the conference that 
because of the growth of the Church, 
in the future ward MIA workers will no 
longer be invited to attend June con- 
ferences. 

July 1969 

Promised Valley began its nightly- 
except-Sunday third summer season in 
the Temple View Theater, across the 
street, east of the Salt Lake Temple. 



New stake presidency: President 
Henry E. Anderson and counselors Wal- 
lace L. Burt and George T. Brooks, 
Sugar House (Salt Lake City) Stake. 



President David 0. McKay fulfilled 
a desire and a promise when he at- 
tended the official opening ceremonies 
of the new David 0. McKay Hospital 
in Ogden, Utah. He had promised "to 
be present at the opening of the hos- 
pital," at the groundbreaking cere- 
monies October 22, 1966. 



Fifty trophies in 34 divisions were 
presented at the conclusion of the 
annual all-Church tennis tournament. 



76 



Improvement Era 



During inter-faith services, Presi- 
dent N. Eidon Tanner of the First Presi- 
dency offered the dedicatory prayer at 
Salt Lake City's new auditorium com- 
plex, the Salt Palace. Music for the 
service was given by the Mormon 
Youth Symphony and Chorus, making 
its first public appearance. 

The Salt Lake Tabernacle Choir and 
organ marked the end of 40 years of 
successful nationwide radio broadcast- 
ing at their weekly broadcast this 
morning, where many congratulatory 
telegrams were received. Immediately 
following the broadcast a short radio 
and video tape was made for the Na- 
tional Broadcasting Company, which 
will be telecast during special program- 
ing as the American astronauts reach 
the moon next Sunday. 

The Tabernacle Choir and organ be- 
gan broadcasting nationally as an NBC 
Monday afternoon feature July 15, 
1929. it became a Sabbath morning 
Columbia Broadcasting System pro- 
gram on the first Sunday in September 
1931. 



The Salt Lake Tabernacle Choir, 
singing in San Diego, California, as part 
of that city's two hundredth anniver- 
sary, was given two standing ovations 
and long rounds of applause by an 
estimated thirty thousand who attended 
the concert at the San Diego Stadium 
this evening. 

This was the day of the Children's 
Parade, as Salt Lake City began the 
annual Days of '47 celebration. 



President Joseph Fielding Smith 
of the First Presidency and President of 
the Council of the Twelve commemo- 
rated his ninety-third birthday at a 
traditional family gathering held in a 
Salt Lake City park. 

The appointment of Roy W. Oscarson 
of St. Louis as a Regional Representa- 
tive of the Council of the Twelve was 
announced. 



Sj] 



Of the astronauts landing on the 
moon today, President N. Eldon Tanner 
of the First Presidency said: "I know 
of no single thing in the history of man 



that has caused all people throughout 
the world to be so vitally and unitedly 
interested in and involved in what was 
taking place as they were in the flight 
of Apollo 11 and putting man on the 
moon. I feel that man on the moon, 
communicating with us on the earth, 
should help men to believe and under- 
stand that God, the Creator of the 
earth, which is the spaceship on which 
he placed us, can communicate with 
us, and that if we keep in tune with 
him we will have a safe landing when 



we have completed our mission here 
on earth." 



This was Pioneer Day in Utah, the 
intermountain West, and in fact any- 
place where the Saints assemble. In 
Salt Lake City the traditional parade 
was led by a U. S. Marine Corps color 
guard and the Marine Corps Band from 
Twenty-nine Palms, California. Follow- 
ing close behind was a car in which 
President and Sister David 0. McKay 
were riding. 



•5f 

Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 



For directions on how to live life 



There is an always compelling question: Where would we - or 
should we — or can we go for directions on how to live life? 
Perhaps we can draw a parallel. Where would we go for directions 
on how to use an instrument, a car, or a complex piece of equipment? 
Who knows most about what things are made for, how they should be 
operated and cared for, what they are designed to do? Obviously, 
the designer or maker of a machine would be the one most likely to 
prepare a manual of instructions pertaining to it. And so likewise, in 
life, the Creator, the Administrator, would know most about its purpose, 
about people, about their possibilities. The Maker would know why 
moderation, morality, labor, respect for law are essential for peace 
and health and happiness. He has given us a marvelous mind, marvelous 
physical faculties, and has counseled us to do some things and not 
to do others, and not to impair or clutter our lives or consciences 
with unwholesome habits, or careless living, or unbecoming conduct. 
It is natural that it should be so. One cannot conceive of a parent's 
not being interested in everything that pertains to his children: their 
physical, mental, moral, and spiritual health, and happiness. And one 
cannot conceive of the Father of us all not being interested in every- 
thing that pertains to his children. And so he has given us standards, 
counsel, requirements, commandments, laws, rules of life to realize 
our highest possibilities, our highest happiness. Where else would we 
turn? Whom else could we trust with our everlasting lives? There are 
many brilliant men on earth but none who knows enough. To those 
distressed, to those with problems, to those who are searching and 
trying to find a way, look beyond the superficial, beyond the surface, 
beyond the shifting theories, the irresponsible permissiveness, the 
false assumptions. Look to the meaning and purpose and peace of life, 
and its limitless, everlasting possibilities. Turn to the Maker for the 
directions you so much seek. 

* "The Spoken Word" from Temple Square, 
presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting System June 22, 1969. Copyright 1969. 



September 1969 



77 



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78 



Maya 

By Don L. Searle, Jr. 

The seedcase breaks 
And the stalk fights free, 
Noiv struggling ivith earth, 
Notv rising heavenward, 
Lifted by ivind, and drawn on 
By the siren song of sun. 

In his maize, the Indian tiller 

sees 
Fidfillment of the promise 
Left by his fathei-s, 
Who have thus tilled their crops 
For centuries, eras, generations. 

In his heart, he feels, too, 
Fulfillment of a jjromise. 
The bursting of a seed. 
And, though he knotvs not the 

soiver. 
Yet knoivs the seed is good. 
The promise left by his fathers 
Tells him he is a child of God, 
Strayed these many centuries. 
Whom his Eternal Parent will 

rescue. 
He is god-seed, and will not be 

abandoned. 
But will bloom too. 
And produce, and be harvested 
By the Soiver who has thus tilled 

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For centuries, eons, and eterni- 
ties. 



Improvement Era 




One Vote Can Change History 




By Henry C. Nicholas 

• The right to vote, to exercise one's 
political franchise, in whatever nation 
one finds himself is based on a re- 
sponsibility that all Christians and men 
of goodwill must honor if they are to 
continue their democratically oriented 
societies. To emphasize the matter, 
history affords many instances where 
only one vote changed or would 
have changed the entire course of his- 
tory. No one need ever think his vote 
does not count. It counts immensely. 

One vote in 1774 prevented the 
United States from becoming an 
independent nation within the British 
Empire. When the First Continental 
Congress met in Philadelphia, the pro- 
posal was made that America remain 
In the British Empire as a separate, 
political entity, an imperial relationship 
such as that of Canada and Australia 
today. This proposal was defeated by 
a margin of one vote, and it is but one 
of a number. of historic instances in 
which a single vote has decided the 
destiny of a nation. 

In 1868 impeachment proceedings 
in the U.S. Senate against President 
Andrew Johnson lost by one vote. 

In modern times a single vote 
exerted a tremendous influence on the 
Allies' winning World War II. In the 
summer of 1941, when German troops 
were rolling through Russia, and Japan 
was perfecting the last details of its 
attack on Pearl Harbor, the House of 
Representatives voted on the proposal 
to disband our new army of 1,500,000 
men. This proposal was defeated by 
the narrow margin of one vote. 

The sum of it all is that your vote 
counts — and it counts heavily. O 



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79 



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80 



Mormon Battalion 

Although I enjoyed "The Mormon 
Battahon Monument in San Diego" 
[June], I flinched when I encountered 
three geographical errors: (1) Cajon 
Pass does not cross the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains. It crosses the San Bernardino 
Mountains over 150 miles south of Mt. 
Whitney, which is located near the ex- 
treme southern end of the Sierra Nevada 
range. (2) The Truckee River flows 
easterly off the Sierra Nevada into Ne- 
vada, finally draining into Pyramid Lake 
northeast of Reno. It would have been 
impossible for the soldiers to walk up 
the California coast to the Truckee River, 
inasmuch as the Truckee does not enter 
the ocean. (3) It would have been 
equally impossible for the soldiers to fol- 
low the Truckee to Sacramento. The 
Truckee flows easterly away from Sacra- 
mento. The nearest it comes to Sacra- 
mento is in its headwater areas, which 
are located nearly 100 miles east of Cali- 
fornia's capital city. 

Edwin P. Pister 
Bishop, Californi.\ 
And now we flinch. 

Fiction 

I feel I must tell you how much I have 
enjoyed the fiction you have used in the 
Era in the past year. I was particularly 
delighted with "A Happy Misunder- 
standing" [May] and "Be Jubilant, My 
Feet" [March], and was impressed by 
"Personal Appraisal" [April], "With 
What Measure" [July 1968], as well as 
several others. I hope you will continue 
to use these kinds of stories often. I 
would like to see more articles along the 



lines of "The Long Hot Summer of 
1912" that give us a glimpse of true 
pioneer experiences. 

Grace Diane Jessen 
Glenwood, Utah 

Another Irishman 

I am only 12 years old but I read the 
Era a lot and soon I will be 13. I read 
your article "The Mormons and the Irish" 
[April] and just wanted to tell you my 
story. My father is an Irish convert. I 
was two years old when he joined the 
Church. I wrote to give you one more 
example of an Irish Mormon. 

Pamela Powers 
Seattle, Washington 

Conference Talks 

Thank you for publishing the Era each 
month. My testimony is strengthened 
each time I read it. Since I am a mis- 
sionary in Chile I don't have an oppor- 
tunity to listen to general conference, but 
the talks are published in the Era. It is 
really interesting to find out that the 
Spirit can be felt in the written word 
as well as the spoken. I'm thankful that 
the Lord has blessed me with the ability 
to read, the simple gift of reading. 

Elder Stanley Church 
Chilean Mission 

The deaf and hard-of-hearing Latter-day 
Saints wish to express their thanks for 
the Era coming into their homes each 
month, especially the general conference 
issues. Not being able to hear radio or 
TV, or not knowing if the persons giving 
the interpretation signs to us are com- 
pletely accurate in their sign signals, the 
Era is our lifeline. We deaf Latter-day 
Saints love the Era. 

Sister Joan Parry 

Oakland ( California ) Fifth Ward 

The May Issue 

Your May conversion to a women's 
magazine, minus the problem page, 
comes as somewhat of a surprise, but . . . 
excuse me while I change the nappies 
and get on with knitting. 

Peter John Bleach 
London, England 



Zinnia Parade 
By Beth M. Applegate 



The leaves of the garden are 

blackened and dead, 
But there still is fire in the 

zinnia bed 
Where, like rigid old soldiers, 

roiv after row, 
The scarlet zinnias parade in a 

shotv. 
"Eyes right. Present arms. At 

ease men. At ease." 



Down the line they all turn at 

the trill of a breeze. 
Gorgeous old troopers all game 

to the last. 
They hate to acknowledge that 

summer is past; 
Standing stiff in their glory, 

they know they are beat. 
And that this, their last call, is 

their final retreat. 



Improvement Era 



Computers 
are for 
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People 
are for 
counting on. 




A great combination working for you at Union Pacific. 



It's not what computers 
do, but what people do 
with them. 

Our people are noted 
for their computer sense. 
That's how they line up 
facilities so quickly, how 
they sort, switch, weigh and 
couple thousands of cars 
on the move, how they 
whisk your freight smoothly 



into the traffic flow. 

Union Pacific people 
use computers to spot 
trouble before it happens, 
to watch your shipment 
as it speeds along, to 
flash information back, 
if needed. 

To do the best job, we're 
spending millions every 
year on computers, re- 



search, new equipment 
and facilities. But the 
value of the people who 
run them can't be com- 
puted. In customer 
service, they're priceless. 
For industrial property 
information, write in 
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Bailey, Pres., Union 
Pacific, Omaha 68102. 



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September 1969 



81 



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TbeseTimes 



New Patterns 
inWo rid Affairs 

By Dr. G. Homer Durham 

President, Arizona State University 
at Ternpe 

• With men on the moon, there 
are new patterns in world affairs. 

Complete domination of foreign 
policy consideration by the United 
States on the one hand, and the 
USSR on the other, has come to 
an end. The dissonant duet has 
been joined by other voices. 

The world after 1945 was domi- 
nated by the two super-powers, 
the USA and the USSR. The shift- 
ing patterns* since that time were 
at first hardly discernible. NATO, 
formed in 1949, emphasized the 
super-power, bi-polar world. Twen- 
ty years later, NATO still exists, 
but who can name the American 
commander or identify the loca- 
tion of his headquarters? 

A genuine American, hard-line 
conservative of my acquaintance 
is spending a summer vacation in 
Yugoslavia, not San Diego. This 
would have been unthinkable a 
few years ago. President Richard 
Nixon in the same summer visits 
Romania. Despite the Czech in- 
vasion and crisis of a year ago, 
the patterns are shifting. 

What has changed since Dwight 
D. Eisenhower left Columbia Uni- 
versity to command the NATO 
forces 20 years ago? 





;\-\- 



">e ' 5»"* ^ * 






.# 




'?^Sf*' 




1. Personalities. Most of the 
leadership personifying the post- 
1945 super-power system has 
changed. Under Mr. Truman 
the postwar situation gave rise to 
the term "cold war." Mr. Truman 
left the American presidency in 
January 1953. Stalin died the 
following spring. Malenkov, who 
succeeded Stalin, was a short- 
termer in Russian leadership. 
President Eisenhower and Mr. 
Khrushchev developed a brief 
"entente." In China Mao defeated 
Chiang in 1949 — asserting what 
soon came to be a "third force" 
in Asia. The growing tension be- 
tween Russia and China has now 
become apparent. Border inci- 
dents reveal the split. 

"Titoism" in Yugoslavia by the 
time Eisenhower was President 
demonstrated that Communist 
nationalism in Europe was a 
stronger motive than international 
Communist solidarity. The Hun- 
garian revolt in 1956, the Czech 
incidents through 1968, and 
certain signs in Poland, although 
not politically successful, have 
made the same point. The impact 
of Maoist doctrine in such distant 
points as Albania, Africa, and 
Latin America have indicated 
other variances. 

The rise of De Gaulle under a 
new French constitution and his 
departure from office in the spring 
of 1969 probably marked the 
shifts to a new pattern as clearly 
as anything. Churchill, Adenauer, 
Truman, Eisenhower, Attlee, Eden, 
Stalin, Malenkov, and De Gaulle 
have given way to others. Even 
Fidel Castro, not on the center 
stage in 1945, has been around 
long enough not to provoke over- 
anxiety. 

The passing parade of person- 
alities and the forces behind them 
indicate that the world of the 
1970s is to be quite different. 
The replacement of the dissonant 
duo by a small chorus — in which 



82 



Improvement Era 



there are two powerful voices — 
makes a different world. 

2. Economic systems. The cast 
of characters among the world's 
economic systems has also altered 
sufficiently to indicate something 
about the new patterns. Instead of 
the USA dominating world produc- 
tion, as it did immediately after 
1945, exporting foreign aid, the 
USA has experienced a gold drain. 
An export imbalance has appeared 
from time to time in the past 
several years. President Johnson's 
term saw even a threat to control 
foreign travel and spending abroad 
by individual Americans. 

The Bretton-Woods internation- 
al monetary fund agreement has 
been patched up several times 
since 1945. The franc has been 
devaluated and then, with De 
Gaulle's new francs, has become 
a solid currency. The British pound 
has been devaluated at least twice 
since the war and is still in trouble. 

But the big economic changes 
have come in Japan, West Ger- 
many, and the European common 
market countries, in contrast with 
what existed in 1945. The eco- 
nomic patterns of the future deep- 
ly involve Japan, West Germany, 
the USA, and the USSR and their 
respective national and interna- 
tional ties. 

These changes have likewise 
dramatized the difficulties of the 
Latin American nations. And 
Pompidou's willingness to remove 
the French veto of British entry 
into the European community will 
have side effects in Africa and the 
so-called commonwealth countries 
of the "sterling area." Automa- 
tion, electronics, computer tech- 
nology, space satellites all mark a 
different economic world than in 
1945. 

3. Political systems. Political 
institutions change more slowly 
than the economic. Structures of 
existing systems change much, 
much more slowly and with less 



frequency than the personalities 
who occupy them. To a large ex- 
tent, the new personalities and the 
new economies of the 1970s face 
the different world. But today's 
leaders confront the world with 
the same kind of political mech- 
anisms as those of 1945. Some of 
these instruments may be sadly 
outmoded in the age of satellites, 
space technology, 747s, and 
jumbo jets. But there are some 
new members of the cast of char- 
acters. Equipped with the old 
political instruments, the United 
Nations, varying types of weap- 
onry, and the political institutions 
of each national system, the new 
members of the cast since 1945 
show that the play on the world 
stage is indeed different. 

The most notable change is 
the replacement of the former 
British imperial system with forty 
or fifty new nations. Many of them 
are in Africa. But also included 
are such entities as Malta, a small 
island in the Mediterranean, to 
which the U.S. now names a full- 
fledged ambassador (John C. 
Pritzlaff, incidentally, of Arizona). 
In a weightier sense, India since 
1945 has been divided into two 
great and populous nations, India 
and Pakistan. Burma has likewise 
emerged and given the U.N. its 
third Secretary-General, U Thant. 
The French, Dutch, and Portu- 
guese empires have been dis- 
solved. Algeria and Indonesia are 
significant examples of new na- 
tions that have emerged. Finally, 
but of deep import, Israel, Jordan, 
and Egypt have become inde- 
pendent nations, adding Nasser, 
Mrs. Meier, and King Hussein to 
the new parade of leadership. 

In this milieu, the United States 
became involved in "a land war in 
Asia," against which all our former 
leaders warned. This involvement 
seems to have promoted more 
unrest in the United States than 
any event in our national history 



September 1969 



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83 



— short of civil war in 1861. 

No one knows the future. But 
I suspect that from Mr. Nixon's 
trip to Romania, what preceded it, 
and what follows it that does not 
immediately meet the eye, Ameri- 
can-Soviet relations may resume 
the point preceding the U-2 inci- 
dent. Before that, Vice-President 
Nixon could go to Moscow and 
discuss the merits of American 
washing machines with Mr. 
Khrushchev. Or, Mr. Khrushchev 
could come to the United States, 



and, rather than bang his post-U-2 
shoe on the U.N. table, he could 
view with wonder an Iowa farm 
and its corn crop. 

From Nelson Rockefeller's mis- 
sion to Latin America, perhaps the 
administration will find it advis- 
able to recognize the Castro 
regime and even make a trade 
agreement, including resumption 
of less than hijacked jet transport 
to and from Havana. At least 
voluntary trips to Havana would 
appear to be preferable to involun- 



tary ones. The fact that so many 
now make the trip, receive steak 
dinners in Havana, experience 
little delay, and then "enjoy" re- 
turn flights to the U.S. would seem 
to indicate something. As person- 
alities and economic patterns 
change, the late seventies might 
even see a TWA flight to Shanghai. 
Perhaps in the eighties tour ex- 
cursions might be advertised to 
the Shanghai Hilton. At least these 
are some possibilities that may 
cause us to ponder in these times. 




It's U and I . . . grov^^n nearby! 



84 



Improvement Era 



A New Look at the Pearl of Great Price 

Part 8 (Continued) 




£ \7^^ 



I 1 *fff%^^ 



"SJ%^ 



Facsimile No.1, by the Figures 



9 Dick: Why are the figures in Fac- 
simile No. 1 numbered backwards? 

Mr. Jones: Some people have objected 
to the numbering and have even seen 
in it evidence of fraud. But if you will 
look very closely you will see that the 
numbers are not written in ancient 
Egyptian at all, but in modern Amer- 
ican. They have been put in purely 
for convenience in identifying the 
various figures under discussion. And 
just as those figures can be discussed 
in any order, so there is no mystic or 
symbolic significance whatever in- 
tended in the numbering. The first 
eight figures are numbered in a per- 
fectly consistent order beginning at the 
top and reading from right to left. The 
animated figures naturally come first, 
being the actors of the play rather than 
mere properties — that is why the croco- 
dile, No. 9, has precedence over the 
purely symbolic lotus, No. 10; and the 
"gates of heaven," being far more con- 
spicuous and specific than the vague 
hatch-lines "signifying expanse" (Fig. 
12), are given priority over them. 

Dick: But why does the numbering of 
the four jars go from right to left? 

Mr. Jones: The natural transition 
from Figure 4 is to the nearest jar, Fig- 
ure 5. That, I think, is all there is to 
it. Actually, the canopic jars are num- 
bered in the correct order of their im- 
portance, but that is probably a mere 
coincidence. 

Dick: How about the next figure? 

Mr. Jones: The jackal head, called 
here "the idolatrous god of Libnah." 
That is the most easily recognized of 
all the names. 



By Dr. Hugh Nibley 

Jane: Why is it so easy? 

Mr. Jones: Because the name has 
actually turned up in the Egyptian rec- 
ords, and been obligingly transposed 
into good Canaanite by Professor 
Burchardt as plain and simple Libnah, 
designating an unknown geographical 
region. ^^^'^ Also, however you look at 
it, it always means the same thing. 
Take the Semitic root l-b-n: what do 
Mount Lebanon (the snow-covered), 
lebon (which is Arabic for milk), and 
lebanah (which is Hebrew for moon) 
have in common? 

Dick: That's easy. They are all 
white.i=o 

Mr. Jones: Shining white. And ac- 
cording to the Rabbis the name of 
Abraham's relative Laban means white- 
faced or blond — another indication of 
blondness in Abraham's family.^-^ And 
in the Indo-European family what do 
Alps, lamps, Olympus, and all limpid 
and lambent things have in common? 
They too are shining white. The end- 
ing -ah would normally be the femi- 
nine ending designating a land or 
region "as the mother of its inhabi- 
tants," as the formula goes. Libnah 
would be the White Land, and there 
were places in Palestine in Abraham's 
day called Libnah, "whiteness";^-'- 
then too, Levi had a son Libni, whose 
name meant white. ^-^ 

Dick: So Joseph Smith could have 
got the name from the Bible and found 
out what it meant from a dictionary. 

Mr. Jones: Indeed he could have, 
but does he ever make capital of the 
name? Does he ever connect it up with 
whiteness or anything else? Neither he 



or any of his contemporaries knew that 
the Egyptians always identified the 
jackal-god of Figure 6 with the White 
Land. 

Dick: Did they? 

Mr. Jones: Most certainly and em- 
phatically. Our friend Anubis of the 
jackal's head at all times enjoyed two 
constantly recurring epithets. 

Jane: What's an epithet? 

Mr. Jones: It is a descriptive tag put 
to the name of some famous person or 
thing, like "Long-haired Achaeans," or 
"Honest Abe," or "Mack the Knife." 
An epithet is used so often and so auto- 
matically that it is practically part of 
the name — a sort of title. Well, from 
first to last Anubis always had two 
special epithets: he was "Lord of the 
White Land" and "Chief of the West- 
erners." If you will look at the chart 
you will notice that the jackal-headed 
jar also represents the West. 

Jane: What is the White Land? 

Mr. Jones: That is just what Profes- 
sor Kees asked himself. He decided that 
"Lord of the White Land" (nb ta djesr) 
is derived from the idea of "Lord of 
the shining, sanctified [prachtigen, 
geheiligten] Land," that being a 
euphemism for the necropolis.^-* 

Dick: And everybody knows that the 
necropolis is in the West. That would 
make him Lord of the westerners! 

Jane: But wasn't Upper Egypt, the 
Southern Kingdom, the land of the 
white crown and the white palace and 
the white mace, and all that? 

Mr. Jones: There was a strong temp- 
tation once to locate the "White Land" 
of Anubis in Abydos, but Kees showed 



September 1969 



85 






Fac. I, Fig. 10. Here the four lotuses frame the palace gate on which Pharaoh himself 
reposes as a lion. These vessels are of a type brought by foreign visitors to Egypt as 
gifts to Pharaoh. Here the lotus may well symbolize the exchange of courtesies between 
the court of Egypt and its guests. 



■k zK- -^k -k -A-'k -k i^ -^ -k :h 











PLaM 



Here a 

similes 
holding 



line of pylons exactly resembling those in Fig. 11 of Papyrus No. 1 (the fac- 
are unsatisfactory) supports three portraits of a Pharaoh who is very obviously 
up the sky. They are assisting him in this function as pillars of heaven. 




SIDE ELEVHTION 




EDD El-EVflTION 




secTioM on n-n 



Fac. I, Fig. 11. Most of the great early tombs 
are surrounded by 24 pylons, possibly signifying 
their nature as "pillars of heaven." 



that White Land does not necessarily 
refer to Upper Egypt, though he ad- 
mitted that the meaning of the term 
remained obscure.^''* But very early 
Brugsch noted that of the four canon- 
ical colors the official color of the West 
is, surprisingly, white — instead of a 
red sunset.^-"' On the other hand, the 
Libyans to the west of Egypt, noted for 
their white skin and blue eyes,^-*^ were 
identified by Josephus with the Leha- 
bim, from a root Ihb, meaning "shin- 
ing," "flashing," Arabic lubhah, "a 
clear, white colour, brightness of the 
complexion or colour of the skin," ac- 
cording to Lane.^-' But let's avoid too 



much playing around with words and 
sounds, which is altogether too easy, 
and settle for a few fairly certain 
points: (1) Libnah does mean White 
Land; (2) "the idolatrous god of 
Libnah" does have the mask of Anubis; 
(3) the jackal-headed canopic figure 
does stand for the West; (4) Anubis is 
the Lord of the West; (5) he is also 
"Lord of the White Land"; (6) white 
is the ritual color of the West. That's 
enough, without bringing in the white 
Libyans, to give you something to play 
with. It doesn't prove anything, ex- 
cept, perhaps, that Libnah is a very 
appropriate name to use if you want 



to divide up the world into four regions 
or races according to Egyptian practice. 

Dick: But how about Mahmackrah? 
That's a beast of a different color. 

Mr. Jones: But even more interesting 
because of its unusual name. Figure 7, 
"the idolatrous god of Mahmackrah," 
has an ape's head, though sometimes it 
is shown with the head of a bull or 
cow; the Egyptians placed it at the 
northern quarter of the horizon. What 
makes its name so intriguing is that it 
makes sense almost any way you di- 
vide it up. We must always bear in 
mind when confronted with the often 
exotic-looking foreign names that oc- 



86 



Improvement Era 




The bold and dramatic line panels and pillars are found only in sacred buildings in 
Mesopotamia and are characteristic of the earliest palace facades and tombs of Egypt, 
indicating the other-worldly nature of those structures. In Egypt the recessed panels 
represent gates to the other world, and the pillars flanking them the pillars of heaven. 




The lion Nefertem guards Egypt's northeast frontier with his big knife and his lotus — 
the welcoming committee for those who came to Egypt from Abraham's Canaan. The 
lotus is the official symbol of the border control and of permission to enter the country. 



cur in the writings of Joseph Smith 
that it is the sound and not the sight 
of the name that is being conveyed. 
Baurak Ale and Shaumahyeem are per- 
fectly good Hebrew if you read them 
out loud; though they look absolutely 
outlandish, it would be hard to give a 
better rendering of the old sounds 
without the use of a phonetic alphabet. 
The names of our canopies are ad- 
dressed to the ear and not the eye — 
that is why it is possible to fluctuate 
between Elkenah and Elkkener, Korash 
and Koash. Mamackrah suggests all 
sorts of things to the ear, and it would 
take us a long time to ring all the 



possible combinations that Semitic and 
Indo-European dictionaries could give 
us on the syllables mah, mack, and rah, 
all of which are full of meaning in any 
language. What grabs me, for example, 
is the middle syllable, not plain 
"mack" but "mackr-" and of course the 
final -rah. What I hear is "Mah- 
mackr-rah." That means a lot to me. 

Jane: Why "mackr-," of all things? 

Mr. Jones: Because it reminds me of 
an element occurring in some important 
Canaanite names. M/ir-Anat, for ex- 
ample, means "champion or upholder 
of the goddess Anat";^-® and Rameses 
II called himself Mahr-B'l, meaning 



upholder of Baal, the Canaanite god.^^^ 
Mahr-Rah would be the champion or 
upholder of Rah, the Egyptian equiva- 
lent of Baal. 

Dick: But this "-mackr-" is spelled 
with a -ck- instead of an -h-. 

Mr. Jones: The -h- in "mahr" belongs 
to the root, and must have a heavy 
sound in order not to be swallowed up 
by the following -r. You can see the 
shift between a -k- and a heavy -h- 
sound in our writing of Mi-cha-el, 
which the Jews wrote Mi-ka-el. Inci- 
dentally, the form of the name rather 
neatly parallels our Ma-mackr-rah. 
Mi-cha-el, like Mi-ca-iah (1 Kings 22), 



September 1969 



87 



'Our lion-couch 
papyrus is a political 
as well as religious 
document... 



means "Who is like God?" or "He who 
is like God." Ma- (written Mah- to 
lengthen the vowel according to the 
invariable practice in Mormon scrip- 
tures) is the exact Egyptian equivalent 
of the Hebrew Mi-, so that Ma-mackr- 
rah would mean "Who is the upholder 
of Rah?" or the like— a very appropri- 
ate title for an idol whose worshipers 
were doing everything they could to 
equate and associate the gods of 
Canaan and Egypt. But here is another 
possibility. Among the "Old Canaanite 
Names" found in Egyptian is ma'gar, 
plus a vowel ending, transposed into 
Caii^anite as Maq'arah, meaning "place 
of buming."^^^'^ Since Abraham was 
known anciently as "he who escaped 
the burning," Mah-mackrah could be 
the local deity of the place of sacri- 
fice. Though "no precise geographical 
location is provided" for some of Abra- 
ham's most important experiences,^-'"' 
a good deal is being written today (as 
we shall see) about his many con- 
frontations with local gods in Canaan. 
Here is the idolatrous god of Beth-shan 
who is called Mkl-'a, "the great god."i3o 
The first element in his name, Mkl-, is 
Canaanite, but the second, -'a, is Egyp- 
tian; the first refers to the Canaanite 
god Mkl, whose name, according to 
L. H. Vincent, means "he who is 
able," "the Omnipotent," while the 
second is the Egyptian word for great — 
practically the same thing; so that the 
combination gives us a very powerful 
figure indeed — Mkl the Mighty, "the 
god of power."^^^ Incidentally, since 
Semitic -I- is regularly written as an 
-r- in the Egyptian renderings, the 
Egyptian form of this name would be 
Mkr-'a.i32 

Dick: And since ma- is Egyptian too, 
Mah-mackr-rah would be the full 
name, I suppose. "Who is mighty like 
Re," or "How mighty is Rah" or some- 
thing like that. 

Mr. Jones: We must be careful not 
to go overboard — it is all too easy. But 
I do think it is in order to point out 
that the well-documented name Mkl-'a 
(Mkr-ah) exactly parallels El-kenah: 
in each case the name of a Canaanite 



god is followed by an Egyptian 
epithet meaning mighty. I can think of 
a better Egyptian name, though: Rank 
gives the name Mai-m-hqa as meaning 
"the Lion is ruler."i^2a q^^ tj-^jg pattern 

Mai-m-akr-'ah would mean "the Lion 
is Akr the great," Akr being the earth- 
god as a lion. At any rate, we are free 
to guess as long as we don't preach. 

Jane: But what's it got to do with 
an ape's head? 

Mr. Jones: Don't you remember? The 
jar with the ape's head signifies north 
for the Egyptians — that is the purpose 
of this particular symbol. For the 
Egyptians, Palestine and Syria were 
the lands of the north. ^^^ So now we 
have idols for the east, west, and 
north — 

Dick: — so the only one left must 
belong to the south. 

Mr. Jones: With a tip-off like that, 
we are naturally prejudiced, so we 
should proceed with care. Our last 
canopic. Figure 8, is the human-headed 
Imset, who in the Egyptian system 
stood for the south. All that remains 
to test in the Book of Abraham is his 
name, which is given as Korash or 
Koash. 

Jane: Which is it? 

Mr. Jones: The different spellings 
given to proper names in the Book of 
Abraham are plainly an effort to ap- 
proximate their sounds. As might be 
expected, it is especially the -r- that 
causes trouble: Elkenah appears as 
Elkkener, and Korash as Koash, also 
Jershon as Jurshon and Potiphar as 
Potipher-^your -r- is a great trouble- 
maker in ancient as well as in modem 
languages. ^^* If you ask me which of 
the forms is correct, I unhesitatingly 
answer — they all are! Anybody who 
knows anything about Arabic also 
knows that you can't insist dogmatical- 
ly on one official pronunciation for 
any single word — and it has always 
been that way in the East. Here is an 
Egyptian-Canaanite deity whose name 
can be read as Qesrt, Qeserti, Qsdt, 
Kousor, and Chrysor — and that is 
typical. ^^^ But what does Koash re- 
mind you of — a Bible land far to the 
south of everything? 

Jane: The Land of Cush? 

Mr. Jones: Of course. The most suc- 
cinct essay on Cush is in the Neix> 
Standard Jewish Encyclopedia (1966), 
p. 515, which defines Cush as "Region 
S of Egypt"" (Nubia, Ethiopia) in He- 
brew and other ancient languages. It 
extended "S from Elephantine and 
Syene (Aswan)." It has also been 
identified with southern Arabia and 
even India. The names of the four 
brothers, Mizraim, Punt, Canaan, and 
Cush certainly remind us of the di- 
vision of the world into four regions. 



There is still no agreement as to where 
the lands of Punt and Cush really 
were; but the queen of Punt, who had 
dealings with Queen Hatshpsut, cer- 
tainly lived in the South. 

Jane: Wasn't the Queen of Sheba 
the queen of the south, too? 

Mr. Jones: These mysterious southern 
queens have caused considerable per- 
plexity. Saba was on the other side of 
the Red Sea, the Arabian side, where 
some people put Cush.^-'*'' But however 
Sheba, Punt, Cush and Korash-Koash 
may be related, the one thing they have 
in common is that they are all in the 
deep south. 

Dick: Including Korash? 

Mr. Jones: Consider. The natives of 
Saba, way down there at the south 
end of Arabia, worshiped a goddess 
lagouth; and where do you think she 
came from? Heliopolis! 

Dick: We might have known. 

Mr. Jones: In fact, she was simply a 
local form of the Egyptian lady Hathor, 
"the regent of Heliopolis," worshiped 
not only in Saba but also in Punt.^^'' 
But the interesting thing is that her 
worshipers were known as "the people 
of Koraish" and also as the Beni- 
Qananee or Sons of Canaan. Back 
home at Heliopolis the lady went by 
the name of Wadjit, which was semit- 
icized into Ozza, under which title she 
turns up as "one of the principal idols 
of the Qoreish" in Mekkah.^^^ 

Dick: Which puts her in the south 
again. But weren't the Qoraish the 
tribe of Mohammed, and didn't they 
come much later? 

Mr. Jones: Well, A. B. Kamal be- 
lieved that even the religion of the 
classical Qoreish was strongly influ- 
enced by Heliopolis. He sees a con- 
nection in the tradition that an 
ancestor of Mohammed "converted the 
tribe of Khozaa and the Himyarites 
[an early desert kingdom] to the wor- 
ship of Sirius," which they called 
Sh'ri, the middle sound being some- 
thing between a deep guttural and a 
cough. ^^^^ You may remember that 
Shagre-el, meaning "Sirius is god," was 
worshiped' by the people who tried to 
sacrifice Abraham.^*" As to the Qoreish 
coming later, the name is the diminu- 
tive of an older Korash; as you know, 
the Jews held the Persian Koresh 
(Cyrus) in great esteem,^*^ but there 
was another, Kharush, a legendary king 
of Babylon, who destroyed Jerusalem: 
his name is interesting because it is the 
reverse of Koraish, and means "big bad 
Korash."^*2 Finally, a tradition pre- 
served by the Arabic writers designates 
by the name of Korash the father or 
grandfather of the very king who tried 
to put Abraham to death.^*^ The root 
k-r-sh can be tied to a great number of 



88 



Improvement Era 



meanings, but as a proper name it is 
peculiarly at home in the south and 
tied to the worship of the most im- 
portant Egyptian goddess. Since the 
south is the only direction we have left, 
and the human-headed canopic jar does 
stand for the south, we may as well let 
it stand there for the present. Remem- 
ber — we are not settling but raising 
questions, not shutting but opening 
doors. There are plenty of doors that 
need to be looked into. 

Dick: But what about the next figure, 
number 9, "the idolatrous god of 
Pharaoh"? Doesn't he sort of spoil the 
four brothers act? 

Mr. Jones: On the contrary, he is in- 
dispensable to it. In the "quadri- 
lateral" geographical patterns of the 
Egyptians, Maspero observed, "we find 
the four cardinal points who with the 
creator form the Five." That is why 
the primal Ogdoad of Heliopolis, com- 
prised of the four gods of the universe 
with their wives, ends up as an En- 
nead, an odd number — they have to 
have one president at their head, and 
he makes it nine.^*^ 

Dick: Why do they have to have just 
one at their head? 

Mr. Jones: Because he is the One in 
the Center, and the center, which is a 
perfect and invisible point and the pole 
of everything, can only be one. Profes- 
sor Posener notes that to the four 
directions is added "the center of the 
earth, hry-ib ta" so that we sometimes 
read of the "five parts" of the world 
instead of four.^*^ Sethe has discussed 
the psychological reason for this: No 
matter where you are, there are always 
four main directions — from where? 
From you! You are the one in the 
middle, and the four directions exist 
only by virtue of your awareness. ^'° 
Indeed, Friedrich Ratsel began his 
epoch-making geography with the state- 
ment, "Every man regards himself as 
the center-point of the universe around 
him." The Egyptians were keenly 
aware of this. In the Salt Papyrus, for 
example, we see the four houses of 
the world, the four gates, and the four 
cardinal points all arranged around a 
fifth sign in the middle, the ankh 
sign of life, signifying the presence 
in the center of the Hidden-One, Great- 
One, Unknown-One, Unseen-One, 
Amon the Father of All Life.^^" In 
"the Ideal House of Life," according to 
the Egyptians, the four houses surround 
"the hidden one who rests within . . . 
the Great God. ... It shall be very 
hidden, very large. It shall not be 
known, nor shall it be seen."^"* 

Dick: What's it all about? 

Mr. Jones: A basic reality of existence. 
The Four Sons of Horus, as you know, 
were the stars of the Big Dipper, point- 



ing ever to the pole of the universe — 
the most important object in the cos- 
mos. Yet there was nothing there! 

Jane: Why not? 

Mr. Jones: Because in the days when 
the Egyptians first took their bearings 
on the universe there was no North 
Star such as we know it today — there 
was just empty space, as far as mortal 
eye could see, and that just at the point 
where all things come together and 
around which all things move as 
around the throne of God. The idea 
of the complete absorption of the Four 
in the One is most often expressed by 
the symbol of the four-headed ram 
sitting in the middle of the cosmic 
circle (we will get to that when, if 
ever, we talk about Facsimile No. 2!); 
the "four heads on a single neck" show 
that the Four by uniting create a per- 
fect unity, a single individual to whom 
in turn they owe their own identity; 
they are thus the four great gods imit- 
ing to create the universe (the ram- 
headed god is always the Creator), 
and also to re-create Osiris by giving 
him eternal life.^*^ They bring comple- 
tion and perfection to the ha of Osiris 
when they all meet together to pool 
their natures and their powers.^^° The 
idea is compellingly expressed in the 
pyramid and obelisk, which designate 
"dominion over the four quarters of 
the world and the zenith," the zenith 
being the point on top at which four 
planes, lines, and solids all come to a 
single point.^^^ Now to the Egyptians, 
who on earth is the One in the Center, 
in whom the life of the race is concen- 
trated and by whom it is sustained? 
I'll give you a hint: The sarcophagus 
of King Tutankhamon shows that 
Egyptian kings were buried in four 
coffins, one within the other.^'" Also, 
the Pharaoh sat on a fourfold throne, 
and the Pyramid Texts describe the 
Four Children of Geb having a feast 
while in their midst sits "the king on 
his throne, incorruptible, unspoiled, 
unassailable."^^^ 

Dick: What has this to do with the 
idolatrous god of Pharaoh? 

Mr. Jones: As everyone knows, the 
Egyptians carried their cosmic imagery 
over into the affairs of earthly govern- 
ment — or vice versa. Whereas in 
Canaan, as Stadelmann has shown, 
there was "no fixed and established 
'Canaanite religion' " common to all 
the regions under Egypt, there was a 
single centralized Egyptian cult, cen- 
tering in Pharaoh.^'^* The gods of Syria 
and Palestine are extremely hard to 
study, he says, because their relations 
to each other are "constantly changing 
from time to time and from place to 
place,""^ and though we know of their 
existence, we know almost nothing 



about their cults. ^^'^ The one thing that 
brings them together in a sort of order 
is "the dogmatic position of the Egyp- 
tian King as overlord of the Syro- 
Palestinian area."^^'^ And that is the 
situation we find in the explanation 
to Facsimile No. 1, where everything 
eventually comes back to Pharaoh, 
and where "the idolatrous god of 
Pharaoh" (and we have seen that the 
crocodile was just that) takes his place 
among the Egyptianized gods of 
Canaan. This is a reminder that our 
lion-couch papyrus is a political as 
well as a religious document, and in- 
deed the ancients never separated the 
two departments, least of all the Egyp- 
tians. This point is brought home with 
great force if we closely examine the 
next figure in the papyrus, which is 

Figure 10. Abraham in Egypt: 

Dick: If that's Abraham, I'm Julius 
Caesar. 

Mr. Jones: Hail Caesar! Haven't you 
learned yet that the Egyptians have 
their own special ways of indicating 
things? Notice how this same design is 
identified in Figure 3 of Facsimile No. 
3: "Signifies Abraham in Egypt." It 
is not a portrait but a symbol, pure and 
simple. In all symbolism there are 
varying degrees of realistic representa- 
tion, ranging from near portraits to 
pure abstraction. The Egyptian could 
give a reader a pretty good idea of o 
man on an altar; but how would he 
indicate a particular individual and no 
other on a particular altar in a particu- 
lar country? For that he would either 
have to accompany his drawing by an 
explanatory text, as Abraham has done, 
or else show everything symbolically, 
which has been done in this case with 
considerable clarity and economy. 

Dick: I don't see it — Abraham in 
Egypt! 

Mr. Jones: Of course you don't. Even 
an Egyptian would not see it unless 
he had been initiated into the elements 
of the symbolism involved, but I think 
most Egyptians would get the point of 
the lotus. When the Egyptologists of 
1912 explained that the odd things 
called "Abraham in Egypt" were 
merely "an offering table covered with 
lotus flowers," they considered their 
job done — as if that explained every- 
thing.^^"^ 

Dick: As if Joseph Smith couldn't 
recognize the flowers too. 

Jane: He said it was a symbol, didn't 
he? 

Mr. Jones: The experts who brushed 
the thing aside so easily seem to have 
been completely unaware of the vast 
richness and variety of the lotus sym- 
bol in Egypt. No subject has been the 



September 1969 



89 



object of more study and publication 
since 1912 than the meaning of the 
lotus to the Egyptians, and the very 
latest study, that of Peter Munro, con- 
cludes with the declaration that the 
many identifications of the lotus with 
this and that "are still imperfectly and 
only tentatively understood," and that 
we do not yet know how or when or 
where the lotus came to be associated 
with so many different ideas and indi- 
viduals in the Egyptian mind.^^^ Our 
job is to find out, if we can, what the 
particular lotus design in Facsimiles 
1 and 3 represents, and it is not going 
to be easy. Dr. Spalding's informants 
were also apparently unaware that Pro- 
fessor Jequier had at the time just made 
a special study of Egyptian lotus 
symbolism and declared of this particu- 
lar lotus arrangement; "Nobody . . . 
has given a satisfactory explanation of 
this type of monument."^^" The work 
still remains to be done, but at least 
we can find out what possible inter- 
pretations of the symbol an Egyptian 
would find acceptable. 

To begin with, in both Papyrus No. 
1 and Facsimile No. 3 we see an open 
lotus with buds above and below it 
arching over a small stand with a fat 
little pitcher on it. In Papyrus No. 1 
the stand is flanked by two thin jars 
which are missing in Facsimile No. 3, 
and since the two drawings are given 
the identical interpretation, our atten- 
tion is drawn to what they have in 
common — the lotus and the buds. Now 
this lotus combination is common 
enough in coronation and court scenes, 
so it is quite at home in Facsimile No. 
3, but so far as I know this is the 
only lion-couch scene adorned by the 
presence of a lotus-stand. That in it- 
self should be enough to make Egyp- 
tologists sit up and ask whether there 
might not be something special to this 
picture after all. If you will step into 
our Opet shrine, you will notice that 
there are no lotuses in the lion-couch 
scene. But look around you at the 
other walls — what do you see? 

Jane: Lotuses ever)^where! 

Mr. Jones: So conspicuous, in fact, 
that Professor Rochemonteix concluded 
that the lotus must somehow express 
the basic idea of the Osiris cult as 
celebrated at this place.^^^ He even goes 
so far as to declare that "the lotus and 
the papyrus are the emblems par excel- 
lence of Egyptian religion, exactly as 
the crescent is for the Moslems, and the 
cross for the Christians," the symbolism 
being by no means confined to funerary 
situations.^*^^ 

Dick: Lotus and papyrus? 

Mr. Jones: The exact identification of 
these flowers has been the subject of 
endless discussion. Some have main- 



tained that the papyrus of Upper Egypt 
is a lotus and the lotus of Lower Egypt 
a papyrus, some that both flowers are 
lotuses, others that both are papyruses 
— and this confusion seems to go right 
back to the Egyptian artists themselves 
who "constantly and deliberately inter- 
changed lotus and papyrus. "^°2 g^t 
whatever their botanical classification 
may be, these two flowers enjoy a 
position of unique importance in Egypt, 
especially the lotus, which turns up 
everywhere in Egyptian art. 

Jane: Then it's just a decoration. 

Mr. Jones: Far from it! Though some 
scholars have insisted that "there is no 
serious religious or symbolic signifi- 
cance ... no rebus or code in the use 
of the lotus in decoration," the same 
authorities admit that apparently deco- 
rative use of the lotus may often con- 
ceal a sort of hieroglyphic code.^*^^ "If 
we know the value of these symbols," 
wrote De Rochemonteix long ago, 
"these ideograms, we can discover the 
dogmatic sense pursued by the de- 
signer ... his piling up of emblems 
which at first sight simply astonished 
us."^°' Thus the lotus-and-stand com- 
bination in the tomb of Seti I "has 
adapted itself completely to the pattern 
of written symbols," as if it was trying 
to tell us something,^"'^ and the same 
design in tombs of the Pyramid Age 
may "represent the titles of the dead 
written in a specialized way," accord- 
ing to I.E.S. Edwards. ^^^ 

Dick: So our lotus and stand may be* 
trying to tell us something special after 
all. 

Mr. Jones: It is the monopoly of a 
particular lotus that makes one sus- 
picious. If all the Egyptians cared 
about was their decorative effect, what 
about all the other equally beautiful 
flowers they ignore? How is it that 
hieroglyphic flowers are almost exclu- 
sively lotuses?^"'' That only the blue 
and white lotuses are represented, 
though the rosy lotus was more decora- 
tive and more popular?^^® That the 
lotuses, instead of being depicted in the 
free-and-easy manner of the Egyptian 
artists, are almost always drawn after 
"a very rigid pattern"?i*'° That other 
plants never appear to compete with 
the lotus in heraldic contexts?^'''" 

Jane: What are heraldic contexts? 

Mr. Jones: When the lotus appears as 
somebody's coat of arms. "The lotus is 
the flower of Egypt par excellence," 
wrote A. Grenfell; "also it is the sym- 
bol of Lower Egypt. . . . the lotus is 
the typical 'arms' of Egypt. "^'^^ On the 
other hand, in the earliest times it 
would seem that the lotus stood for 
Upper Egypt and the papyrus for 
Lower Egypt,^'- though Maspero and 
A. Moret held that the plants were 



both lotuses. ^''^ 

Dick: So the lotus can stand for both 
the land of Egypt and dead people. 

Mr. Jones: That isn't even tlae begin- 
ning of it. We seem to have a whole 
language of the lotus. Recently Pro- 
fessors Morenz and Schubert wrote a 
book about it, and concluded that the 
various interpretations of the Egyptian 
lotus are in a state of hopeless confu- 
sion today.^''* And still more recently 
Professor Anthes has made a whole list 
of unanswered questions about the 
lotus. ^'® It is easy and pleasant to 
speculate, and there can be no doubt 
that there is something very funda- 
mental about the lotus. It is easy to see 
why, for example, the lotus and papy- 
rus always stood for Egypt in the minds 
of the people, since "lotus and papyrus 
were essential constituents of this un- 
changing significant 'landscape of the 
first time,' " as H. Frankfort puts it.^^*^ 
And because the lotus growing wild 
"afforded ordinary food for the poor," 
it represents the prodigal life-giving 
abundance of the land.^'^' Also, the 
first life that appeared from the pri- 
mordial waters of chaos was the lotus, 
emerging pure and white at Heliopolis 
out of the primordial ooze of the "first 
land."^'^® That is why at On the lotus 
went by the special name of Nefertem, 
the god "who represents the universe, 
who was before life existed and who 
will be when life has vanished. . . ," 
as Anthes puts it.^^'' It is the lotus that 
holds the secret of life springing up 
spontaneously, apparently out of noth- 
ing; during the long ages of desolation 
when only the empty waters existed, 
the seed of life slept in the lotus, ready 
to come forth on the First Day: "With- 
in the lotus was Re," the sun, waiting 
to be born as Khepri, according to a 
hymn from Edfu: "The Sleeper shall 
awake when the light comes forth 
from it. . . ."^^^ Hence the idea that 
all life finds earnest of the resurrection 
in the miracle of the lotus.^^^ The 
king is described in the Pyramid Texts 
as being "in the lotus" at the moment 
he awakes from the sleep of death.^®- 
As Anthes puts it, "the lotus at Re's 
nose gives him life for his daily jour- 
ney; this refers to the first day of the 
Primal Time, when the Primal Lotus 
gave the sun the power to live and 
create."^^^ You can readily see why 
the lotus gets a big play in funerary 
scenes. 

Jane: Like lilies today. 

Mr. Jones: Botanically the Egyptian 
lotus was a real lily.^^* And since Re 
and the king and Osiris were restored 
by the power of the lotus, so it was 
believed that everybody might enjoy 
the same privilege.^®^ But the funeral 
lotus is only part of the picture. In the 



90 



Improvement Era 



latest lotus study, Peter Munro shows 
how the lotus being identified with Re 
is also the highest god, Atum-Re at 
Hcliopolis; and how as the Father of 
the living king he must also be Osiris; 
and how as a living king he must also 
be Horus; and how father and son 
and Rc-Harachte "fuse in the com- 
posite form of Nefertem."^^*^ This 
Nefertem seems to be the key to the 
whole business; a lot of studies have 
been written about him, one emphasiz- 
ing one aspect of his nature and another 
another. Nefertem is the king at Hcliop- 
olis, represented as a lotus and em- 
bodied as a lion. 

Dick: Lotus and lion? 

Mr. Jones: You will notice that the 
guardian lion with the big knife al- 
ways has a huge lotus on his head or 
behind his back — ^we shall soon see 
why. As Nefertem, the king comes 
down from heaven to rule among men, 
bearing the lotus sceptre that gives him 
all power on earth and below earth.^'^' 
But it is important to note that his 
lotus power is limited to his earthly 
kingdom alone — Nefertem is "the rep- 
resentative of purely earthly Kingship," 
as Anthes puts it.'^'^'^ The Pharaoh sits 
on a throne on which the intertwined 
lotus and papyrus shows his rule over 
the Two Lands,^^" their stems also 
binding Asiatic and African prisoners 
back to back, showing that foreign 
lands are also brought under the bene- 
ficent sway of Pharaoh.^"° On the same 
throne designs you will see the king 
himself depicted as a lion treading on 
his foreign enemies.^^" The lotus and 
lion are constantly found together in 
such contexts because they perform the 
same two functions, one protective, the 
other aggressive. 

Jane: Lotuses attack people? 

Mr. Jones: Yes, but first of all they 
protect them. The gift of a lotus is 
often accompanied by the hieroglyphic 
symbols for protection.^ "^ In the broad- 
est sense Nefertem, the lotus-lion, "pro- 
tects the individual against anyone who 
might do him harm.""- That is why 
the lotus-sign was put by the Egyp- 
tians on everything they wanted to 
protect — on utensils, clothes, houses, 
"on their dresses, furniture, chairs, 
boats, fans," while in the tomb of the 
dead the lotus-sign was used "as a 
talisman assuring ... an effective pro- 
tection against its enemies."^ "^ The 
power of the lotus, though formidable, 
is ever benign and protective in nature, 
as might be expected from its life- 
giving power.^°* 

Dick: But you said it was aggressive. 

Mr. Jones: Whenever you see a big 
lion with a knife, you can be almost 
sure of seeing a huge lotus on its head 
or back."-^ The connection is explained 



by their common home in the marshes 
of the northeastern frontier of Egypt, 
where they both guarded the land 
against marauding Asiatics of the 
desert. The lion Nefertem and his 
companion, or double Myesis, both 
"worshipped in a lotus-flower," were 
at home on the extreme northeastern 
borderlands, the home of Sopdu, right 
up against Arabia. ■■"•' You will recall 
that the great fortress there was called 
the Dwelling of the Lion, and stood 
amidst the shallow lotus-filled lakes 
that along with the crocodiles and the 
lions of the surrounding deserts effec- 
tively discouraged unauthorized entry 
and exit. Right down to the time of 
the Caesars it was one of the main 
duties of Pharaoh to protect this all- 
important gateway, and it was the 
custom to "venerate the protector of 
this frontier of the land.""' At nearby 
Heliopolis the king himself was Nefer- 
tem, both lotus and lion, "the guard- 
ian"; "not only does the sight of him 
make the mountains [that is, the 
Asiatics] to flee," wrote Naville, "but 
he is the protector of the other divini- 
ties."^"'' His speciality is terrifying 
would-be invaders from the East, in 
which capacity he is also identified 
with the other lion-god Myesis, who 
also wears the lotus. '"^ An inscription 
tells how Horus himself turns into a 
lion to drive the enemies of Egypt out 
of Heliopolis and back to the lion- 
house on the border.-"" Seth, the arch- 
type of the wicked rebel and invader 
from the north and east, is stopped cold 
at the border by the lotus "Nefertem, 
who emerged from the primordial 
waters . . . who turned back Seth, who 
opposed the foreign countries when 
the heaven was overcast and the earth 
wrapped in mists."-"' 

Dick: I can understand why a lion 
would chase strangers, but why a lotus? 

Mr. Jones: Professor Kees found that 
odd too, and suggested that it might 
be because a lotus stem will cut the 
fingers of anybody who tries to pull it 
up.'-"- But whatever the reason for it, 
tfiis hostility brings the lotus, accord- 
ing to him, into a "syncretistic relation- 
ship to the guardian deities of the 
eastern Delta [Sopdu], who make him 
too a frontier guard. "^"^ It is obvious 
that the lotus is more "symbolic" than 
the fierce lion, but it plays an equally 
conspicuous role in the guarding of the 
northeast frontier. To the people in 
the hungry lands to the east, Egypt was 
something special: it was their last 
chance when they were starving, but 
while they were there they hated the 
place and yearned to get back to their 
old bang-up life in the desert.-"' They 
were a dangerous lot, and the Egyptian 
records show that they were carefully 



The lotus in 
Facsimile No. 1 as a 
symbol for Abraham 
can be well 
documented, claims 
the author 



checked at the border and that their 
every move was watched while they 
were in Egypt.-"^ E. A. Speiser has 
spoken of a "societal curtain that 
separated Egypt and Mesopotamia, call 
it the lotus curtain, if you will" — he 
too perceived the symbol of the lotus. -°^' 

Dick: But why did the Egyptians let 
the Asiatics in at all? Couldn't they 
keep them out? 

Mr. Jones: They not only didn't keep 
them out — they actually offered them 
protection. Therein I think we can see 
the unique greatness of Egypt. Only 
recently Professor Montet pointed out 
that the Egyptians, contrary to what 
we have been taught to think, were 
really great travelers and, what is even 
more surprising, that the two main 
duties of Pharaoh were (1) to keep the 
movements of the Asiatics into and 
within Egypt under strict control, and 
(2) to protect Egyptian travelers, mis- 
sionaries, merchants, and artisans 
abroad.-"' Now the concern for the 
helpless in a strange place is the spe- 
cial concern of Nefertem: in funerary 
reliefs the dead, newly arrived in the 
Netherworld, are drawn without arms, 
to show their condition of utter help- 
lessness in a strange and frightening 
world. While they are in that condi- 
tion, Nefertem comes to their rescue, 
puts his arms around them, and finally 
gives them a new set of arms, saying, 
"There now, you have become whole 
and complete, now you have your 
arms!" meaning, as Professor Naville 
put it, that the dead person "is now a 
complete person who has been en- 
tirely reconstituted. He lacked arms, 
but the gods of the East have given him 



September 1969 



91 



theirs."-o8 

Jane: Who are the gods of the East? 

Mr. Jones: None other than the two 
lions Nefertem and Myesis, with their 
huge lotus-crowns. The concern for 
strangers is very significant, for in 
many scenes and inscriptions the lotus 
stands for both guest and host. The 
lotus-god Harsotmus is called "a guest 
in Denderah,"-"'' and if you were in- 
vited to a party in Egypt, especially at 
the royal palace, etiquette would re- 
quire you to bring a lotus with you 
and present it to your host. There is a 
regular formula for "coming with a 
bouquet of Amon, Lord of the Thrones 
of the Two Lands in Karnak, after do- 
ing all that is commended," and a pro- 
per way to address one's host: "To thy 
Ka, ' happy king, Lord of the Two 
Lands, whom Re loves, a bouquet of 
thy father Amon. . . . Mayest thou re- 
main on the throne of the living Horus 
like Re forever.''-^" This is plainly a 
New Year's gift for the throne, which 
seems to have been the origin of the 
idea — remember that the lotus repre- 
sents the birth of everything at the 
cosmic New Year. Another formula is, 
"Coming in peace with a bouquet of 
Amon with the compliments of his 
beloved son," this being followed not 
by the name of Horus, as you might 
expect, but by the name of the donor.^^" 
When the king appears in a reception 
on the throne, people bring him their 
Amon-bouquets with wishes for "a 
happy life-time in the royal dwell- 
jj^g "211 ii ^Q^ a birthday as well as a 
New Year's gift. 

Dick: But why should anybody have 
to give lotuses to the king if they be- 
longed to his father Amon in the first 
place? 

Mr. Jones: No idea was more familiar 
to the ancients than the pious truism 
that the god who receives the gifts of ' 
the earth as offerings is after all the 
real source of those same offerings. An 
inscription has the king bring a lotus 
to Horus, "who himself arose from the 
lotus,"^^^ and Ramesside steles show 
people bringing lotuses to a queen who 
is already holding a lotus and stands 
completely decked and surrounded with 
lotuses l^'^^ 

Jane: But would you have to bring a 
lotus to the party — couldn't you bring 
something else? 

Mr. Jones: No — it is always a lotus, 
and that shows clearly that it is a 
ritual and symbolic thing. Naturally 
the people who got invited to court, 
high nobility and officials for the most 
part, vied with each other in the splen- 
dor of their offerings and flatteries, 
until in the 18th Dynasty the Amon- 
bouquets finally got too big to 
handle.^^^ But no matter how showy 



and vulgar they got, the bouquets al- 
ways had a lotus as the centerpiece. An 
inscription in the Tomb of Amenemhab 
says of a lotus-bearer, "He comes as 
one welcome, bringing the life [?] 
of Amon," to which his host replies, 
"To thy person the symbol of life [?] 
of Amon, who is pleased with thee, 
who loves thee and admits thee."-^^ 
Here the word for "admit" is s.wah-k, 
meaning to make a place for a person, 
like the Arabic Marhahan — welcome to 
the party! 

Dick: So the lotus is really a sort of 
ticket then. 

Mr. Jones: Yes, like the tesserae hos- 
pitales of the Greeks and Romans. 
Every guest brings a token for his host 
and receives one in return — often the 
identical gift!-^° Thus the Egyptian 
brought a lotus to Pharaoh as "a sign 
of submission and love," which lotus 
he professed to have received from the 
king's father Amon, the giver of all 
blessings, including life itself.^^'' All 
were expected to bring such a gift 
"coming in peace to that place where 
the king is."-^'' With the expansion of 
empire, Amon became the god of all 
the lands under Egyptian sway, and 
the Egyptian lotus is as conspicuous in 
throne scenes from Palestine and Syria 
as it is in Egypt itself. Indeed, the 
object of Morenz's and Schubert's co- 
operative study is to trace the spread- 
ing of the royal lotus motif from Egypt 
all over the Old World. Among the 
Joseph Smith Papyrus is one very fine 
picture of the four Sons of Horus, the 
canopic figures, standing on an enor- 
mous lotus before the king on his 
throne.21^ Here the lotus represents all 
the regions of the earth brought under 
the sway of Egypt.^^^ 

Dick: So Abraham would have 
known all about the lotus in Palestine. 

Mr. Jones: And so would everybody 
else. On scarabs of the First Inter- 
mediate period (to which Abraham is 
commonly assigned) we see the non- 
Egyptian Hathor, the type of the lady 
Qudshu, the hierodule and hostess to 
all the world, bearing the lotus as her 
special insignium.^-° Later she is rep- 
resented standing on a lion with a 
bunch of lotuses in her hand;^^'^ she 
rides her lion when she visits Min 
(Amon) in Egypt too, and she wears 
the Hathor wig, but for all that, ac- 
cording to Stadelmann, she is still "a 
Near Eastern and unegyptian" figure.^^- 
But we also have the hospitable lotus- 
queen in Egypt: the cow-head of the 
lady Hathor is always seen emerging 
from a lotus stand of capital,^^^ and 
people who brought lotuses to the party 
would describe them as gathered by 
the queen's own hand in her own 
garden.224 



Jane: Some nerve! 

Mr. Jones: Not at all — just giving 
honor where honor was due. In the 
Temple of Seti I the king himself is 
greeted by a lady wearing a magnifi- 
cent lotus crown who identifies herself 
as the hostess when she hails his 
majesty with "Welcome! Welcome !"225 
In putting their arms around the arm- 
less and defenseless stranger, the two 
lotus-lions of the East were, according 
to Professor Naville, simply performing 
the office of the Lady, "the Protect- 
ress."^^^ I think it is significant that 
we find the same sort of lotus-hostess 
in archaic Greece as well as in Pales- 
tine: "It was said of the lotus-crowned 
goddess of the Corinthian myster- 
ies. . . . Her service is perfect free- 
dom, and, indeed, her habit [was] . . . 
always to grant or withhold her favors 
according as her guests . . . came to 
her with exactly the right gifts in their 
hands — gifts of their own choice, not 
of her dictation."22'i' Thus Robert 
Graves reports, and we can guess what 
gift would most please "the lotus- 
crowned goddess"! As a token of ad- 
mission, the lotus is a sort of certificate, 
without which no one is admitted to 
"the region of truth."228 

Dick: I suppose that everything you 
have said has some sort of reference to 
Abraham, but it would sure help if 
you would sort of pull things together 
for us. 

Mr. Jones: I'll try, but we still have 
nothing to work with but a lot of 
loose ends, or rather "an inextricable 
tangle" (ein verworrener Knauel), as 
Professor Morenz puts it.^^o ^^j Y)r. 
Anthes has concluded that such funda- 
mental questions as whether the Primal 
Lotus was a prehistoric idea, whether 
it originated with Nefertem, how it 
was related to the sun, in what form 
the sun originally emerged from the 
lotus, etc., are "insoluble/'^^o But still 
the very richness and variety of Egyp- 
tian lotus symbolism gives us hope — 
since we are not closing but opening 
doors. We must realize, as Morenz 
reminds us, that nothing expresses more 
completely than the lotus "the aston- 
ishingly extensive possibility of asso- 
ciation of ideas which the Egyptian 
possessed. "-^^ So nothing could be more 
rash or foolish than to insist that a 
lotus in a particular picture cannot 
possibly be one thing because it hap- 
pens to symbolize something else. 

Now of one thing there is no doubt 
at all, and that is that the lotus is the 
symbol of the land of Egypt, in particu- 
lar Lower Egypt, where Abraham was 
visiting. Also, the lotus is the em- 
bodiment of Pharaoh as the ruling 
power of Egypt, a beneficent and hos- 
pitable power. Characteristic of the 



92 



Improvement Era 



lotus is that it is most at home in situ- 
ations of hospitality, where it represents 
both guest and host. In both capacities 
it can represent individuals, including 
foreigners in Egypt — a wall painting 
from an 18th Dynasty tomb shows a 
Syrian bringing a magnificent lotus 
offering to Pharaoh, just as any good 
Egyptian would.--''- According to Joseph 
Smith, the lotus in Figure 10 represents 
two entities and specifices their rela- 
tionship: It is "Abraham in Egypt," 
Abraham as guest, and Egypt as host. 
We can refine the image by bringing 
in a good deal of interesting and rele- 
vant data — the special function of the 
lotus in protecting strangers, the lotus 
as the stamp of official protection and 
safe conduct (a sort of visa, as it were), 
the lotus as the mark of the frontier 
control station through which Abraham 
would have to pass (that customs house 
is the scene of an important Abraham 
legend), the oddity of the lotus in this 
particular scene. 

Dick: Odd is right. The welcome 
guest is being murdered. 

Mr. Jones: All the more welcome for 
that. Remember, it was considered the 
highest honor to substitute for the 
Pharaoh in any operation. Inciden- 
tally, the little spouted jug on the tall 
stand is, according to S. Schott, an oint- 
ment jar for the use of honored 
guests. 2^3 You must admit this is a 
strange place to find one, and I can't 
think of a better explanation than the 
one given. But along with all the 
details, there is a broader symbolism 
to the lotus that I think would have 
been widely recognized almost any- 
where in the ancient world; it is the 
subject of Morenz's and Schubert's fas- 
cinating little book — the wandering of 
the lotus. Those two scholars have 
combined their formidable specialties 
to show how the lotus symbol spread 
from Egypt throughout the Old World. 
In one important context the lotus 
marks the trail of the righteous man, 
the messenger of truth, bearing his 
light into dark and dangerous places: 
the lotus was identified with Hercules 
as the wandering benefactor of man- 
kind, the perennial stranger and 
guest;-^* it sprang up in the footsteps 
of the Bodhisattva when he went forth 
to bring light into a benighted world;^^^ 
the "God of Wisdom" held the lotus 
in his hand as he rode on his lion into 
China to take the shining truth to the 
ends of the earth.^^^ 

]ane: Lotus and lion again! 

Mr. Jones: Which is certainly a broad 
hint as to the Egyptian origin of the 
business. But let me ask you, who is 
the archtype of the righteous man, the 
bearer of revelation and preacher of 
righteousness, the courageous stranger 



in alien and hostile countries and 
courts? Who but Abraham the Wan- 
derer? In the very early Judaeo-Chris- 
tian Hymns of Thomas the righteous 
man in the world is compared with a 
king's son spending a dangerous so- 
journ in "the Land of Egypt," 
following the ancient and established 
prototype of "Abraham in Egypt." 
Abraham is qualified if anyone is for 
that distinguished company of wan- 
dering inspired teachers whose symbol 
is the lotus, and so I don't know just 
how surprised we should be to find a 
nineteenth-century prophet designat- 
ing the lotus as the symbol of "Abra- 
ham in Egypt." 

Dick: Here are some more fancy 
abstractions — 

Facsimile No. 1, Figure IJ. Designed 
to represent the pillars of heaven, as 
understood by the Egyptians. 

Mr. Jones: How could anyone pos- 
sibly make it clearer that this is 
supposed to be not a picture but a 
representation, with a meaning ascribed 
arbitrarily and culturally? Long ago 
Deveria condemned Joseph Smith for 
giving any interpretation at all to the 
pillars, which he calls a "characteristic 
ornament in Egyptian art, having no 
known significance."-^*' 

Dick: "Nothing at all; yet all that is 
I see." 

Jane: Hamlet. 

Dick: No, Gertrude. When will they 
learn? 

Mr. Jones: If we want to know 
whether Professor Deveria really saw 
everything, we've got to do a little see- 
ing ourselves. Let's find out how this 
particular ornament is used by the 
Egyptians. 

Dick: What an ornament! 

Mr. Jones: I'm afraid the successive 
engravers of Facsimile No. 1 have done 
us all a disservice by turning the "gates 
of heaven" into a meaningless and un- 
tidy jumble of verticle lines arbitrarily 
and irregularly connected by crude 
horizontal strokes. But the original 
papyrus is a different storj': it shows us 
ten clearly drawn gates or a series of 
pylons. If we are looking for parallels, 
we don't have to go far — Egyptian art 
is full of them. The characteristic of 
the earliest royal tombs is the decora- 
tion of their outer surfaces with what is 
called the "palace facade" style of 
recessed panelling — a long line of 
imitation doors flanked by square pil- 
lars. The structure is abundantly illus- 
trated on the earliest seals, showing the 
elaborate palace-gate or "serekh" de- 
sign.-^" 

Jane: What's a serekh? 

Mr. Jones: The picture of the en- 



The Prophet's 
identification o.f Figure 11 
as "pillars of heaven" 
is fortified by 
Dr. Nibley 

trance to a tomb or palace — a rectangu- 
lar door flanked by massive supports 
sometimes extended into towers on each 
side, usually with a big hawk perched 
right above the gate between the pil- 
lars. H. Balcz has collected over a 
dozen different types for comparison; 
to him the structure suggests a fortress 
— "Wehrbau."-^^ But he has no doubt 
that the central panel is always a 
door.2^^ The label shht-tawi, "Gate of 
the Two Lands," shows that the door 
was identified with the palace gate, 
though high officials were sometimes 
allowed by special courtesy to employ 
the motif in their own tombs. -^° The 
same design was employed in the tomb 
as in the palace, especially in the 
earliest dynasties, and Balcz maintains 
that the false door of an Old Kingdom 
tomb was really a niche "to which the 
significance of a passage for the dead 
was attributed."-*^ The earliest steles, 
which were certainly not houses, also 
have the same false door and panel 
design,-*^ which is also repeated on the 
sides of wooden coffins, where we 
find the same vertical lines with empty 
spaces in between, designated by the 
experts as "pillars" with "false doors" 
between them.^*^ Arid the same motif 
is used to decorate the sides of boxes 
and chests designed to hold any 
precious objects.-** 

Dick: Is the idea always the same? 

Mr. Jones: We cannot say until we 
know what the idea was. Professor 
Balcz reaches the sensible conclusion 
that the false door on funerary objects 
must represent "a passage for the 
dead. "2^5 But a much later study con- 
cludes that we still do not understand 
the undoubtedly religious significance 
of "such a curious architectural phe- 
nomenon."-*" While some maintained 
that the peculiar structure of the 
palace-facade style was the result of 
building in brick, others held that the 
design was imported into both Egypt 
and Mesopotamia from northern Syria, 
where they built in wood.-*' And while 
some suggested that all the vertical rills 
were for drainage, others pointed out 
that there was no need for drainage in 
Upper Egypt, and that the pylons and 



September 1969 



93 



pillars must therefore have a special 
significance."^® This is indicated by the 
fact that in Mesopotamia this particu- 
lar building style, which closely 
resembles the Egyptian structures of 
the Thinite and Predynastic periods, 
is employed only in temples.-*" Sur- 
veying the phenomenon throughout the 
whole ancient East, Stuart Piggott 
writes: "An essential part of the temple 
decor was an elaborate system of niches 
and reveals which appears to have 
been a mark of religious as opposed to 
secular architecture."^^" In Egypt 
whether the false door of the palace 
facade is "the gate of the house of the 
dead," as Balcz calls it, or the door of 
the divine residence, as Borchardt 
called it, it is always a passageway into 
another world, a sacred ceremonial gate 
of heaven or the underworld. -'^^ 

Dick: And what about the pillars? 

Mr. Jones: They make the gates, of 
course. The Egyptians, like other 
people, talk of the four pillars of 
heaven;-''^- but also of one world pillar, 
like the ancient German Irminsul,-''" 
and of two, as in an inscription from 
the Temple of Hathor at Philae that 
says, ". . . even as the heaven is fixed 
upon its two pillars. . . ."-^* That is, 
there is no fixed number for the pillars 
of heaven — sometimes the four are in- 
creased to many more.-°''^ Indeed, the 
ceiling of an Egyptian temple repre- 
sents the sky, and the columns support- 
ing it, no matter how many, stand 
for the pillars of heaven.^^*^ Here the 
coffin of Prince Min-Khaf of the 4th 
Dynasty has pillars of heaven all 
around it; on each side there are "eight 
vertical columns on the panels that 
frame the seven false doors"; in this 
as in a coffin from a neighboring tomb, 
the number of gates seems to be de- 
termined by the space at the artist's 
disposal. 2''" If I were to choose a signifi- 
cant number for the gates, I think I 
would pick some multiple of five. 

Dick: Why of five? 

Mr. Jones: Well, in the coffin of 
Prince Min-Khaf there are 20 gates or 
niches; here in a lion-couch scene from 
Abydos there are five serekh gates under 
the couch;""® and again in our old 
familiar tomb of Seti I we see the god 
Shu holding five such gates between 
the arms of his Ka.~^^ In another lion- 
couch scene, from the tomb of Puy- 
emre, are ten such gates, and also a 
chest on a lion-couch under which arc 
nine or ten "gates. "-'^'^ Here in a later 
scene are three serekh patterns sup- 
ported by 15 such gates. -°^ All multi- 
ples of five, you see. 

Dick: That may be all right for the 
later period. But in the good old days 
when recessed paneling was in its 
glory, there was a distant preference 
for multiples of 12 gates — a cosmic 



number that strongly supports the 
heavenly nature of the pylons. 

Mr. Jones (miffed) : What makes you 
say that? 

Dick: I bought Professor Emery's 
paperback on Archaic Egypt at the 
entrance of the museum, and I too 
have been counting doors or windows. 
Of the 18 archaic tombs depicted in the 
book, nine have 24 niches each and 
one has 12,-''- and one and possibly 



another has six.-^^ 

Mr. Jones: And what about the 
others? 

Dick: Some of them are multiples of 
ten, I'll admit. One has ten doors, if 
you count the half-doors, and there 
are two with 30 panels and one with 
40.-^^ Interestingly enough, of all the 
tombs there are only two that do not 
have pylons that are multiples of 10 
or 12, and they have 38 and 22 doors. ^'^■' 



{To he continued) 



FOOTNOTES 



'i""M. Burchardt, Die altkanaanaeischen 
Fremdwocrter u. Eigennamen un Aegyptischen 
(Leipzig, 1909f), n, pp. 71, 73, 32; III, 209c. 

^-"Egyptian and Semitic names for Lebanon 
are discussed by S. Ronzevalle, in Ann. Serv., 
Vol. 17 (1917), pp. 261-64. 

^^B. Beer, Lehen Abraham's, p. 81. 

i^^Num. 33:20f, Josh. 10:29-32, 39; 12:15; 
21:13; 2 Kings 8:22; 23:31; Jer. 52:1, etc. 

^^sExod. 6:17; 1 Chron. 6:20, etc. 

i-'H. Kees, in Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 71 (1935), 
p. 155. 

''"'"'H. Bnagsch, Geographic der Nachharldnder 
Aegyptens (Leipzig, 1858), pp. 90-91. 

'^Honigmann, in Pauly-Wissowa, Realenzy- 
klopaedie, 13:l:150f. 

^-""A. Epstein, in Rev. Etudes Juives, Vol. 24 
(1892), p. 96; Gen. 10:13; 1 Chron. 1:11. 
Honigmann, loc. cit., and Lane's Arabic Dic- 
tionary. 

i^B. Couroyer, in Orientalia, Vol. 33 (1964), 
pp. 443ff. 

^^Ibid., p. 448. 

i^saBurchardt, op. cit., Nos. 518, 925. 

i29bR_ Clements, Abraham and David (Lon- 
don: Scm Press, 1967), p. 24. 

^'^''R. Stadeknann, Syrische-Palaestinen-iische 
Gottheiten in Aegypten, pp. 53, 62. 

^^Ibid., p. 55; the whole problem is dis- 
cussed, pp. 52-63. 

"-'Zfoid., p. 15. 

i32'''Ranke, op. cit., I, 444, Nos. 4, 5. 

^^In the broadest sense, the "Asiatics" of 
the north began already in Lower Egypt and 
included the islands of the sea, S. Schott, in 
Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 95, pp. 58f. 

^■''•Collating the texts in the original English, 
W. L. Whipple, Textual Changes in the Book 
of Abraham (BYU, M.A. Thesis, 1959), made 
tlie sensational discovery that we find both 
Elkkener and Elkcnah, Koash and Korash, 
Potipher and Potiphar, Abram and Abraham, 
Zeptah and Egyptus, Egyptes and Egyptus, 
Nahor and Nehor, Jurshon and Jershon, Thum- 
niim and Thiimmin. There is no reason for 
doubting that all these fonns were used an- 
ciently. 

^■'^'■J. Leibovitch, in Ann. Serv., Vol. 48 
(1948), pp. 435-44. 

™2 Chron. 21:16 has "the Arabians that 
were near the Ethiopians" invading Judea. The 
problem is treated in the Jewish Encyclopedia, 
S. V. Cush. 

i-A. B. Kamal, in Rec. Trav., Vol. 24 
(1902), p. 23. 

^mbid., p. 24. 

^^Ibid., p. 20. 

^"Abr. 1:9; see Improvement Era, March 
1969, pp. 82-84. 

^*^W. Bacher, in Rev. Etudes Juives, Vol. 55 
(1908), pp. 251-63. 

"-According to a saying attributed to Jesus, 
in Patrologia Orientalis, 19: 584f (No. 195 of 
the early Arabic Logia). 

ii^H. Schiitzinger, Urspning der Ahraham- 
Nimrod Legenden, p. 139. 

i"G. Maspero, in Bibliotheque Egyptologique, 
Vol. 2, pp. 367, 369. 

^■•"G. Posener, in Goettinger Nachrichten, 
1965, No. 2, p. 74. 

"•'K. Sethe, Gesch. der Eimhahamierung 
(Berlin Acad., Sitzber., 1934), p. 217. 



i^"E. A. W. Budge, Egyptian Hieratic Papyri 
in the Br. Mus. (1923), p. 20. 

^'^A. Gardiner, in Jnl- Eg. Arch., Vol. 24 
(1938), pp. 167-69. 

""C. De Wit, in Chron. d'Egypte, 32:31; 
E. A. W. Budge, Papyrus of Ani, I, 240. At 
night Re joins the 4 canopies to tow the sun- 
boat; by day the ram-headed god joins them 
for the same purpose, S. Hassam, Solar Boats 
of Khafra (Cairo: Govt. Press, 1946), p. 117, 
fig. 38b. 

^'^Since ba means "ram" as well as "soul," 
the ram was the normal expression of the idea, 
De Wit, op. cit., p. 30. G. Thausing, in Mitt, 
d. Dt. Inst, zu Kairo, Vol. 8 (1939), pp. 54, 
60, identifies the 4 Children of Horus with the 
4 stars of the Dipper, the 4 glorious Akhw 
spirits, the 4 guardian apes of the Underworld, 
the 4 primal elements, and the 4 divine couples 
that make up the nine. 

^s'R. Graves, The White Goddess (Vintage 
Books, 1958), p. 457. 

^^-A. Piankoff, Shrines of Tutankhamon, pp. 
41, 21. 

i-'Pyramid Texts, No. 576: 1510, 1515. One 
came to Heliopolis "to be i^urified, resurrected, 
deified, to behold the god face to face," G. 
Maspero, in Bibl. Egyptol., Vol. 1, p. 378; cf. 
370, and Coffin Text No. 124, 125: "1 have 
come as your fourth ... to see Tnm, the fifth 
of the stars of Sahu (Orion)"; Pyr. Text No. 
264: "Tenen has summoned them, and each of 
the four gods . . . brings those summoned, to 
come and tell their names to Re and Horus," 
cf. P.T. No. 139. 

i^R. Stadelmann, op. cit., p. 24. 

'^Ihid., p. 26. 

^^'^Ibid., p. 146. 

^^■'Ihid., p. 140. 

'^^Neto York Times, Supplement, Dec. 29, 
1912. 

i=»P. Mimro, in Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 95 (1968), 
p. 40. 

180G. Jequier, in Sphinx, Vol. 13 (1910), 
p. 206. 

lo^M. de Rochemonteix, in Bibl. Egyptol., 
Vol. 3, pp. 177-78, and Rec. Trav., Vol. 3 
(1881), p. 76. 

i^-W. Kroenig, in Mitt. d. Dt. Inst. Kairo, 
Vol. 5 (1934) p. 151. E. Drioton, in Chron. d' 
Egypte, Vol. 10 (1934), pp. 202f, notes that 
lotus and papyrus are also confused in hiero- 
glyphic. K. Appelt, in Mitt. d. Dt, Inst. Kairo, 
Vol. 1 (1930), pp. 153-57, gives a classifica- 
tion of Egyptian lotuses. Botanical identifica- 
tion is also treated by G. Benedite, in Acad. 
Inscr., Man. et Mem., Vol. 25 (1921-2), pp. 
1-28, and M. Jacquemin, in Melanges Maspero 
(Vol. 66 of Bibl. Egyptol.), I, ii, 799ff. On 
the various esoteric symbols of the lotus, E. Na- 
ville, in Rev. de I'Egypte Ancien, Vol. 1 (1925), 
pp. 31-44, and VoL 2 (1929), pp. 210-253; 
R. Lepsius and K. Sethe, Denkmdler, Vol. 2 
(1904), pp. 74ff, and W. D. Spanton, in 
Ancient Egypt, 1917, pp. 1-20, and 1929, pp. 
65-73, who treats botanical types and decora- 
tive uses. 

'«-'H. Senk, in Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 72 (1936), 
pp. 71-73, conceding that there may be hidden 
significance in various lotus designs. J. J. Clere, 
in Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 68 (1932), pp. 45f, and 
H. Schacfer, Von aegyptischer Ktinst, pp. 2 If 



94 



Improvement Era 



(from which we quote), both minimize the 
importance of symbolism, though the latter, p. 
23, admits that the lotus is almost never used 
as "pure ornament." W. Kroenig, op. cit., p. 
154, suggests that since there is no decorative 
or logical explanation for the monopoly of lotus 
and papyrus, it must have a hidden meaning 
which escapes us. 

"*M. de Rochemonteix, in Rec. Trav., Vol. 
6 (1885), p. 24. 

^"■'■'W. Kroenig, op. cit., p. 151. 

i'»I. E. S. Edwards, in Jul. Eg. Arch., Vol. 
52 (1966), p. 182. 

iii'L. Keimer, in Ann. Serv., Vol. 48 (1948), 
pp. 96f. 

i«8K. Appelt, op. cit., p. 157. 

^""L. Keimer, in Rev. de VEgypte Ancien, 
Vol. 2 (1929), p. 248. 

^™H. Kees, Der Goctterglaube im alien 
Acgypten, p. 85. 

i"A. Grenfell, in Rec. Trav., Vol. 32, p. 130. 

I'^So L. Keimer, in Aegyptus, Vol. 7 (1926), 
pp. 169f, 175f; K. Sethe, Urgeschichte Aegyp- 
tens, p. 165; J. Capart, in Chron. d'Egypte, 
Vol. 32 (1957), pp. 229-31, says the southern 
plant can be "a liliaceous plant, a palm, or 
sometimes a lotus." 

"3G. Maspero, in Bihl. Egyptol., Vol. 28 
(1921), pp. 61f; A. Moret, Mysteres Egyp- 
tiens, p. 166. 

^"*S. Morenz and J. Schubert, Der Gott auf 
der Blume (Ascona, Switzerland; Artibus Asiae, 
1954), p. 13. 

i"=R. Anthes, in Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 82 (1957), 
pp. 6, 1. 

I'^H. Frankfort, Ancient Egyptian Religion, 
p. 154; so also S. Morenz and J. Schubert, 
op. cit., p. 16. 

i"W. D. Spanton, in Ancient Egypt, 1917, 
p. 8. The idea is depicted in endless friezes 
from the walls of temples, showing lotus- 
crowned goddesses with huge breasts and bel- 
lies moving among lotus and papyrus plants, 
e.g. Mem. Miss. Fr., XI :i, PI. xl. 

"'E. Naville, in Rev. de VEgypte Ancien, 
Vol. 1 (1925), p. 33; Morenz and Schubert, 
op. cit., pp. 16, 46, noting the peculiarly water- 
repellent nature of the lotus, which keeps it 
miraculously free of mire and filth, p. 109. 

"OR. Anthes, in Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 80 (1955), 
p. 80. 

isocited by E. A. E. Reymond, in Chron. 
d'Egypte, Vol. 40 (1965), p. 62. See espe- 
cially A. Moret, in Journal Asiatique, Ser, XI, 
Vol. 9 (1917), p. 502. 

i^i^Moret, loc. cit.; Morenz and Schubert, op. 
cit., p. 106, see in the lotus the basic idea of 
"self-containment," "self-creation." 

i82Moret, op. cit., pp. 507-8. It was said that 
the soul of Osiris hid in a lotus awaiting the 
resurrection, M, de Rochemonteix, Bibl. 
Egyptol., Vol, 3, pp. 177f, and that Horus's 
two eyes were restored by becoming lotus- 
bulbs, A. Gardiner, Chester Bcatty Papyri in the 
British Museum, Vol. 1 (Br. Mus., 1931), p. 
21; cf. Senmut's Poem in Kemi, Vol. 12 (1952), 
p. 45. The oldest texts tell how Re by smelling 
the lotus is revived every morning, and so "the 
primeval beginning is reiterated," R. Anthes, 
in Jnl. of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 18 (1959), 
p. 176. The King made a lotus offering to the 
sun every morning in the temple of Heliopolis, 
Pyr. Texts, 264a-266b, cited by Anthes, in 
Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 80, pp. 8 If. 

i83Anthes, op. cit., p. 82. 

^«J. Capart, in Chron. d'Egypte, Vol. 32, pp. 
229-31; G. Maspero, in Bibl. Egyptol, Vol. 28 
(1912), pp. 61f, following the botanist Good- 
year. 

i^A. Moret, op. cit. (in note 180 above), 
p. 606; E. Chassinat, in Mem., Inst. Arch. Fr., 
16, PI. xlvi. 

188P. Munro, Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 95 (1968), 
p. 37. 

isTPyr. Text No. 213:130a-134. "The King 
NN is on the nose of Great Power ... he 
appears as Nefertem, the lotus-flower at the 
nose of Re. . . ." Pyr. Text No. 265/6, dis- 
cussed by H. Kees, in Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 78 
(1942), p. 44. 

^88R. Anthes, Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 82, pp. 4-5. 

'SOL. Borchardt, Grabmal des Koenigs Sa-hu- 
Re, Vol. 2 (Leipzig, 1913), PI. 42, is a good 
example, though almost any throne picture will 
do, e.g. Lepsius, Denkm., II, 136. 

^™An extremely common motif, J. Capart, 
Chron. d'Eg., Vol. 32 (1957), pp. 228f; for a 
bibliography, W. D. Spanton, in Ancient Egypt, 
1917, p. 13. The tied lotuses on the throne 
of Thothmes III even without human figures 
"may be something in connection with this 
king's Syrian victories," A. Grenfell, in Rec. 
Trav., Vol. 32, p. 133; cf. Borchardt, op. cit., 
p. 46, Abb. 30 and PI. 16. 



^"■^With the lotus, Hathor bestows the symbol 
of protection, G. Gayet, Temple de Luxour, PL 
XX ; xxiii. Fig. 79; Iviii. At Edfu the lotus-staff 
is presented to the queen with the words, "Pro- 
tection and life-giving," Miss. Arch. Fr., Mem., 
Vol. 30 (1943), Edfu, PI. 445; Vol. 29, PI. 
334, where the king says the same in presenting 
a lotus to a god. 

lo^E. Naville, in Rev. de I'Eg. Anc, Vol. 1, 
p. 41. 

loajbid., p. 44. 

^"*Some have maintained that the power of 
the lotus lay in its smell, which counteracted 
the smell of death and decay and therefore 
demonstrated the power to overcome death, S. 
Morenz, discussed in Orientalische Literatur- 
zeitung. Vol. 48 (1953), p. 348. Kees, Morenz, 
Anthes, and others suggest that Nefertem began 
as a god of perfume, R. Anthes, in Aeg. Ztschr., 
Vol. 80, pp. 81, 87. But as P. Munro notes, 
Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 95, p. 37, Nefertem is far 
more than a Duftgott. Other Egyptian flowers 
have far stronger scent than the lotus, and the 
normal opposition to strong odors was not the 
delicate fragrance of the lotus but the powerful 
influence of burning incense. 

i°5A. Varille, in Ann. Serv., Vol. 53 (1953), 
p. 94, Figs. 4, 5, 6; U. Schweitzer, Loetue und 
Sphinx, Taf. XV, Figs. 5, 6; R. T. R. Clark, 
Myth and Symbol (New York: Grove, 1960), 
pp. 66f, holds the lotus to be "the symbol for 
the final defeat of the powers of the Abyss." 

i»«H. Bonnet, Reallexikon, pp. 508-10; Na- 
ville, op. cit.. Vol. 1, p. 36; H. Kees, in Aeg. 
Ztschr., Vol. 57 (1922), pp, 117f. 

^"^V. Chapot, in Melanges Maspero, Vol. 2 
(1934), pp. 225-31. 

3'«Naville, op. cit.. Vol. 1, p. 39. 

J»«R. Anthes, Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 82, p. 7, on 
the King as Nefertem at Heliopolis; cf. A. Pian- 
koff, in Egyptian Religion, Vol. 1 (1933), pp. 
100-2. The Sphinx of San is a mixture of the 
Egyptian and the Asiatic lions, P. Montet, Le 
Drame d'Avaris, p. 64. Shu also is "the King's 
good companion" and "the living lion who 
keeps (enemies) away, who wards off. . . ." 
K. Sethe, Zur Sage vom Sonnenauge (Leipzig, 
1912), p. 25. Nefertem "confronts alien na- 
tions that they retreat . . . guarding Sopdu, the 
Lord of the Eastern Land," according to a 
hymn in H. Kees, Aegyptisches Lesebuch, p. 13. 

200V. Chapot, op. cit.. Vol. 2, p. 231. The 
lotus-crowned lion is often represented attacking 
Asiatics from the rear, U. Schweitzer, Loewe 
und Sphinx, and A. Piankoff, in Eg, Relig., 
Vol. 1, pp. 103-5. 

201H. Kees, Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 57, pp. 92f. 

=°2H. Kees, Goetterglaube, p. 90. 

^mid., pp. 117f. 

2«S. Hermann, in Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 91 
(1964), p. 74. 

^■'>I, Levy, in Rev. des Etudes Juives, Vol. 51 
(1906), pp. 38ff, discussing the Papyrus Anas- 
tasi VI, vi, 14. 

2o*E. A. Speiser, in Centennial Review, Vol. 4 
(1960), p. 218. 

-"OTp. Montet, Le Drame d'Avaris, p. 19. 

»»E. Naville, op. cit., I, 40. The helpless 
armless dead are shown in the Tomb of Puy- 
mere. Vol. 2, PI. xlvii; and in the Tomb of 
Rameses IX someone is bringing two lotuses to 
an armless spirit who has just arrived in the 
Lower World by ship and stands waiting help- 
lessly. Miss. Arch. Fr., Mem., Vol. 15, PI. Ixxii. 

ao^S. Morenz and J. Schubert, Der Gott auf 
der Blume, pp. 36f. 

-'^"S. Schott, Das Schone Fest im WUstenthal, 
p. 116. 

^iilfcfd., p. 117. 

212G. Jequier, La Pyramide d'Aba (Cairo, 
1935), PI. 18; PI. XXII, No. 16. There is a 
formula "for receiving bouquets that were raised 
in the Temple of Amon at Karnak," Schott, 
op. cit., p. 119, and bouquets "for Amon and 
Hathor, the Lord of the Desert," Ibid., p. 104. 

2i3Schott, op. cit., pp. 56f, 62. 

214P. Virey, in Miss. Arch. Fr., Mem., Vol. 2 
(1891), p. 2. Such a flower was in fact called 
'ankh and was a symbol of life, according to 
Schott, p. 55. 

^^We have treated the concept at length in 
The Classical Journal, Vol. 40 (1945), pp. 515- 
43. 

2i«S. Schott, op. cit., pp. 56f. In the temple 
of Seti I the royal lion is seen with a hawk on 
its head, while on the hawk's head is an enor- 
mous lotus— the king is a lotus too. Ibid., pp. 
20f. 

2"Schott, p. 115. 

'^The Improvement Era, Vol. 71 (February 
1968), p. 40B. 

^*J. Duemmichen, Geographische Inschriften 
altaegyptischer Denkmdler, III Abt., Denderah 
(Leipzig, 1885), Taf. i, showing all the nomes 



of Egypt, plus the 4 cardinal points, plus the 
symbols of the Two Lands, all mounted on a 
monster lotus. Cf. Mem., Miss. Arch. Fr., Vol. 4 
(1882-84), PL 38. The lotus-design is common 
in the East representing a geographical map of 
"the earth and its parts," Morenz and Schubert, 
op. cit., p. 127, as well as a map of the whole 
cosmos, ibid., p. 104. 

-^R. Stadelmann, Syrtsch-Palaestinensische 
Gottheiten, p. 15; on the lady as hostess, p. 150. 

■■^^Ibid., p. 110. 

^^^Ibid., pp. 118-19. The Canaanitish Rashap 
is also accompanied by a parasol or lotus, p. 64. 

--^Morenz and Schubert, Der Gott auf der 
Blume, p. 34; M. de Rochemonteix, in Bibl. 
Egyptol, Vol. 3, p. 172. 

--*S. Schott, Das Schone Fest im WUstenthal, 
p. 56. 

-^A. M. Calverly, Temple of Sethos I, Vol. 
2, PL 29. 

-^E. Naville, in Rev. de I'Eg. Anc, Vol. 1, 
p. 39. 

2^Tl. Grave, The White Goddess, p. 539. 

228S. Schott, op. cit., p. 92. 

-2»Morenz and Schubert, op. cit., p. 13. 

2a)R. Anthes, in Aeg. Ztschr., VoL 82 (1957), 
p. 6. 

^iMorenz and Schubert, p. 42. 

^^H. Schaefer, Die Altaegyptischen Prunkge- 
fdsse (Leipzig, 1903), p. 13, Abb. 26. 

2MS. Schott, op. cit., pp. 67f. 

^s^Morenz and Schubert, op. cit., pp. 39f. 

233/bid., pp. I34f. 

2^T. Deveria, in Bibliotheque Egyptologique, 
VoL 4 (1896), p. 196. 

^"For lavish and easily available illustrations, 
see W. B. Emery, Archaic Egypt (Pelican Books, 
1967). Cf. A. Rusch, in Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 58 
(1923), pp. 101-24. B. J. Kemp, in Jnl Eg. 
Arch., VoL 52 (1966), pp. 13-22. 

238H. Balcz, in Mitt. d. Dt. Inst., Kairo, Vol. 1 
(1930), pp. 60-61; on fortresses, 65ff. 

=™Ji)td., p. 69. 

-^L. Borchardt, in Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 36 
(1898), p. 99; H. Grapow, in W. Wreszinski, 
Atlas, III, p. 136. 

"^^Balcz, op. cit., p. 69. Egyptian variations 
on the recessed-panelling theme are illustrated 
by A. Rusch, loc. cit. 

^^P. D. Scott-Moncreiff, Hieroglyphic Texts 
from Egyptian Stelae (Br. Mus., 1911), Pt. I. 

2«W. B. Emery, op. cit. Plates 24a-b, 25b; 
E. Zippert, in Archiv fUr Orientforschung, Vol. 7 
(1931), p. 299. 

2"W. Wreszinski, Atlas, I, 85b. 

2*sBalcz, op. cit., pp. 70ff. 

2*»N. 243 loc. cit. 

-^■'Balcz, loc. cit., and p. 86. 

^M. Fillet, in Revue d'Egyptologie, Vol. 7 
(1950), p. 139. 

«»Balcz, p. 86. 

^S. Piggott, in The Dawn of Civilization 
(New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961), p. 86. 

^^Balcz, op. cit., p. 69; Borchardt, op, cit., 
p. 99. 

^"•-See the note in H. Grapow, Das 17. Kapitel 
des aeg. Totenbuches (Berlin, 1912), p, 38, 
if you can find the work, 

2.^>3Pharaoh is hailed as "the Atum of human- 
ity .. . the pillar of heaven, the beam of 
earth," H. Kees in A. Bertholet, Worterbuch 
der Religionen, X, 41. The central pillar is 
added to the four in the primitive sacred booth, 
R. Anthes, Mitt. d. Dt. Or. Ges., Vol. 96 (1965), 
pp. 81, 84, cf. p. 11; H. Winlock, in A. C. 
Mace, Tomb of Senebtisi (New York: Metro- 
politan Museum, 1916), p. 37. 

^F. Daumas, in Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 95 
(1968), p. 2. 

^. E. Quibell, Excavations at Saqqara, VoL 
1 (1926), PL 57: Nos. 1, 6, 7; PL III, pp. 
15, 66. 

^"M. de Rochemonteix, in Bibl. Egyptol., 
Vol. 3, p. 187. 

^''■'W. Stevenson-Smith, in Jnl. Eg. Arch., Vol. 
19 (1933), pp. 150ff; PL xxi-xxiv. 

25SW. F. Petrie, Abydos, Pt. I, PL Ixxii. 

=^»A. M. Calverly, Tomb of Sethos I, Vol. 2, 
PL 29. 

=«"N. de G. Davis, The Tomb of Puymere, VoL 
2, PL xlvii. 

^Ubid., PL Ix. 

^^W. B. Emery, Archaic Egypt; the 24-niche 
tombs are on pages 55, 64, 66, 83, 132, 136, 
PL 24b and p. 146; the tomb on p, 89 has one 
side un-niched: if the pattern were finished 
here it would give 24 niches. The 12-panel 
tomb is on p. 137; the 6-panel on p. 148, though 
one wall is not niched. The coffin in Plates 24a 
and 25b has six panels if one does not count 
the half -doors. 

2«3Ten panels in PL 24a, 25b; 30 on pp. 72 
and 141; 40 on p. 77. 

2**Ilitd., pp. 48 and 146 respectively. O 



September 1969 



95 



End of an Era 



r 



Life 
Among 

the 
Mormons 



The five-year-old Indian 
boy living in our home was 
having difficulty under- 
standing some of the 
principles of the gospel. 
When we explained to him 
that he would have to be 
eight years old before he 
could be baptized, he took a 
deep breath and replied, 
"It sure is taking a long 
time to make a Mormon out 
of me ! "-Carl Van Tassell, 
My ton, Utah 



Our grandson was teaching a 
Sunday School class and using 
for his text A Marvelous Work 
and a Wonder, by Elder 
LeGrand Richards. One morning 
as he was ready to leave for 
Sunday School, he couldn't find, 
the book. Rushing downstairs, 
he asked, "Has anyone seen 
the Marvelous Work and a 
Wonder?" Very solemnly and 
ivith deadpan expression his 
younger brother stood up and 
announced, "I'm right here. 
What can I do for you?" 
— Mrs. G. Stanley Brewer, 
Ogden, Utah 



"End ot an Era" will pay $3 for humorous anecdotes and experiences 
that relate to the Latter-day Saint way of life. Maximum length 150 words. 



An old Indian was standing on 
the top of a hill with his son, 
looking over a beautiful valley 
below them. Said the old 
Indian, "Someday, my son, all 
this land will belong to the 
Indians again. Paleface all 
go to the moon." 

We may make much of man's 
orbiting in space— but why marvel 
so much? asked one observer. 
Haven't we been orbiting in 
space all our lives on a 
wonderful world? The Creator 
is still in command. 
— Elder Richard L. Evans 



Dieter's Dinner: It's hard to 
be eager over something so 
meager. — Frances Craze 

A noted pianist was asked to 
accompany a young woman who 
was making her singing debut. 
The young lady had great 
ambitions — but unfortunately 
had had little training. After a 
frustrating half hour of rehearsal, 
the pianist cried "Madam, it's no 
use. I play the black keys — 
I play the white keys — but you 
apparently can sing only 
the cracks!" 



A teacher must be like an 
expert gardener. She must 
know when to hoe, when to prune, 
and when to leave alone. 

Two men carrying" briefcases 
stopped in front of Ct traffic snarl. 
One glanced at his watch and 
looked at the traffic. "Hmmmm," 
he said to his companion, '"do 
we have time to take a cab 
or shall we walk?" 

The first thing to do in life 
is to do with a purpose what 
one. proposes to do. 
— Pablo Casals, noted cellist 



When it comes to doing for 
others, some people will 
stop at nothing. 



96 



Improvement Era 



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1 would like to receive complete information 
about these books without cost or obligation. 
Please send me the 36-page PREVIEW BOOKLET 
free. 



Nanne 



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